Sunday, September 29, 2013

State Grange Offers Health Insurance, 1938

“State Grange Activities” by Harry B. Caldwell, State Master, as published in the September 1938 issue of the Carolina Co-operator

Hospital Insurance
The State Grange is now offering another protection against the misfortunes of life. A cooperative agreement between the Executive committee and the Hospital Savings Association of Chapel Hill enables us to offer a form of Mutual Hospital Insurance that will make it possible for our members and their families to receive hospital care when needed without financial embarrassment.

The Hospital Savings Association is a nonprofit service agency. It is the only one in North Carolina approved by the American Hospital Association and the State Medical Society, and its rates are reasonable.

The Association operates on a group plan. A certain per cent of the members of any group or organization must join before an individual can secure the service. By using this plan they can accept the individual for membership without physical examination.

The Association agrees to pay $3 per day towards the expense of room and board in the hospital for 21 days during the first year that the contract is in force and 30 days each year thereafter; to pay all operating and delivery room expense; all laboratory fees; for all medicine, bandages, dressings, etc., while the individual is a patient in the hospital. This complete service is good in any North Carolina hospital. The member receives a membership card, which is presented to the hospital upon entering for treatment. The hospital then looks to the Association for the payment of bills within the limits set forth in the contract.
Two types of memberships are offered: individual at 60 cents per month or $7 per year, and a family contract for father, mother, and all children under 16 years of age at $1.60 per month or $19 per year. 

Where there are no children under 16 years of age, it is cheaper for a man and his wife to take individual memberships.

Farmers Federation Urged Families to Keep Hens, 1931

Sunday, September 15, 2013

We Need to Control Devastating Flooding on the Mississippi River, Sept. 1927

From September, 1927, issue The Bureau Farmer

Shall This Happen Again?

Last April, when the flood waters of the Mississippi River were lapping over 16,000 square miles of the richest farm lands of America, when 200,000 farm people were being fed by the American Red Cross, Sam H. Thompson, president of the American Farm Bureau Federation, went on record pledging the support of the American Farm Bureau in the rehabilitation in the South lands and called upon the state Federations for their assistance and help.

At that time, President Thompson said: “Above everything else, the American Farm Bureau, in assisting the rehabilitation of this area, will insist upon the development of permanent preventive measures.”

The task of rehabilitation is now in full swing. During the summer, the exact requirements of the flooded area were determined, relief measures have been started, preventive measures have been discussed and considered.

On July 21, Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce, took to President Coolidge a comprehensive report of the flood disaster. Secretary Hoover reported that the flood had driven from their homes 750,000 people, that 101 counties had been flooded, that 3.5 million acres of crops were washed out and destroyed.

At that time, Secretary Hoover said: “By the first of November we estimate we shall have spent $13.4 million in Red Cross funds, $7 million for equipment and supplies from the federal government, $3 million in free railroad transportation, and provided $1.1 million for county health cleanup units.”

He urged the development of a national flood control plan which would make impossible again the reoccurrence of such a disaster. Discussing the value of such a plan, he said: “Flood control means the secure development of 20 million acres of land capable of supporting from five to ten millions of Americans.”
The latter part of June, the American Farm Bureau Federation executive committee in session in Chicago stated the purpose of the American Farm Bureau and its policy in the following resolution:

“WHEREAS: The Lower Mississippi Valley is experiencing the most disastrous flood in the history of this nation, causing great damage and destruction and directly affecting more than one million people; and

“WHEREAS: The concentration of waters in the Lower Valley from more than 30 states provides a problem beyond the power and financial ability of the states of the Lower Mississippi to solve; and

“WHEREAS: The Mississippi River is a national waterway and is under the control and supervision of the Federal Government in many respects;

“NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED: that the American Farm Bureau Federation go on record as urging the Federal Government to provide in the most practicable way for the rehabilitation of all persons within the flood area who have suffered as a result of the flood; and that the Government  assume full control of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, and by a system of impounding, levees, spillways, and other necessary means that it shall reduce as far as possible the likelihood of a recurrence of the recent disaster.

“AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED: That we commend the Federal Government for its relief efforts, which have been carried on through such agencies as the American Red Cross, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Agriculture, and the War Department, and that we acknowledge our gratitude to the transportation systems and all other agencies co-operating in the relief of the stricken district. We hereby express our sincerest appreciation for the untiring efforts, both by night and day, of Hon. Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce, who took personal charge of relief work in the flooded areas.”

At the same time that the resolution was being adopted, the Home and Community Department of the A.F.B.F. got in touch with all state Home and Community Departments and asked them to assist in securing underclothing, clothing and bedding for the flood victims. In reply to this request, which was sent to the state federation by Mrs. Charles W. Sewell, head of the Home and Community Department, the state chairman immediately got in touch with their county Farm Bureaus and a vast amount has been contributed through these sources.

The real sacrifice to which Farm Bureau women went to assist the southern sufferers is here reflected in a letter from the Montana State Farm Bureau. In this letter, written by Mrs. Dwight A. Smith, State Chairman, Mrs. Smith points out that in many of the farming sections in Montana times have been hard for two or three years, but she says: “Our women are making underwear and children’s clothing from flour and sugar sacks. You know it is possible to make some very nice articles from these sacks and they are something we at least all have and can spare.”

Mrs. Edna L. Carlson, secretary of the Nevada State Farm Bureau, reported that that state was raising a fund through the County Farm Bureaus to be added to the Red Cross quota.

H.S. Benson, Agricultural Agent at Knox County, Indiana, reports: “The Knox County Farm Bureau has raised a few hundred dollars for the flood sufferers of Mississippi and are anxious that this be handled by the Farm Bureau.”

These are but typical examples of the way the country and state Farm Bureaus are responding to President Thompson’s appeal for aid and assistance.

But while this relief for the human sufferers was being carried on, the American Farm Bureau has not lessened, at any time, its effort to urge the adoption of preventive measures to prevent such a disaster again occurring in the Mississippi River Valley. Commenting on this, President Thompson said: “Past experience and the disaster last spring makes imperative the development of preventive measures that will give full assurance against a repetition of this national calamity. It may be necessary,” he suggested, “in order for the government to do this that large tracts of land be taken over and turned into forest preserves which can, if necessity requires, be utilized as flood reservoirs.”

This interesting suggestion by President Thompson has been taken up in many other quarters and the general subject of the value and usefulness of forests in preventing floods is a point which is being largely discussed this fall.

Probably the most interesting data that has been issued on this subject was an article entitled “Do Forests Prevent Floods?” written by Raphael Zon, Director of the Lane States Experiment Station, and printed in American Forests and Forest Life, the magazine of the American Forestry Association. Highlights of Zon’s article:
“Soils covered with forests can store up a quantity of water corresponding to a precipitation of 0.16 inch, or, in very favorable conditions, 0.24 inch at most. A cover of moss can store p from 0.18 to 0.39 inch of water. Moss can absorb water amounting to from 200 to 900 times its weight; dead leaves of birch, maple or other hardwoods 150 to 220 times their weight and pine needles from 120 to 135 times. These amounts are insignificant when compared to the enormous quantities of precipitation that cause excessive floods.

“The fact that forests do not prevent floods resulting from exceptional meteorological conditions is not saying, by any means, that forests have no effect upon water stages in our rivers, or that they are an insignificant factor that can be overlooked in any comprehensive plan for flood control by either storage reservoirs, levees or any other engineering works.

“When we turn, however, from large to small watersheds, the forest as a controlling factor in stream behavior comes out in unmistakably bold relief. If forests cannot prevent great floods in large river basins, they can and do prevent small floods in small watersheds.

“In the light of all these facts, one cannot escape the conviction that the cutting away and burning of the forest on the western slopes of the Appalachians, where the Ohio and its tributaries rise, increased erosion from the slopes, raised the water level in the tributaries and increased the flood danger farther down the Mississippi. Likewise, breaking up the virgin sod of the plains, cutting away the timber along the banks of the streams in the West, draining the swamps and even some of the lakes of the North, the construction of a network of ditches and sewers following in the wake of settlement and city development, all have thrown a greatly increased flood burden on the lower portions of the Mississippi Valley. The more serious part of it is that erosion, once started, as a tendency to grow worse. If soil erosion, either form denuded forest slopes or cultivated fields is not stopped, there is little likelihood that floods will ever be controlled.”

Edgecombe and Edenton Warehouses and American Bank and Trust Co., Ads from 1938 Carolina Co-operator

Edgecombe Bonded Warehouse Co.
Tarboro, North Carolina
Capacity: 28,158 Bales of Uncompressed Cotton
North Carolina’s Largest Warehouse Adjacent to the Virginia Seaboard.
American Bank and Trust Co.
Monroe, North Carolina
W.H. Wood, President
T.E. Hemby, Vice-President
Olin B. Sikes, Cashier
M.W. Williams, Asst. Cashier
Claude Eubanks, Asst. Cashier
to the
North Carolina Cotton Growers Cooperative Association
Upon its
“Fourteenth Anniversary”
Proper Storage Is One of the Essentials of Orderly Marketing
Edenton Bonded Warehouse
Edenton, N.C.                    J. Clarence Leary, Manager
We Operate Trucks for Hire

Saturday, September 14, 2013

'What Club Work Means to North Carolina Farm Women' by Jane McKimmon, Sept. 1938

“The Woman’s Touch or What Club Work Means to N.C. Farm Women” by Jane S. McKimmon, state Home Demonstration Agent and Assistant Director of Extension, as published in the September 1938 issue of the Carolina Co-operator

Homemade Clothes
Pleasing and interesting are the lovely designs for costumes and the good taste in color selection shown by many North Carolina women and girls.

Recently Johnston County staged a dress parade on the lovely lawn of the Woman’s Club in Smithfield and farm women and girls strolled across the grass in tailored sport dresses, house dresses, and colorful prints for the afternoon. Two graceful young women in long cotton evening dresses could not have been more alluring had they been fashioned in an exclusive New York house.

The most impressive thing in these reviews was the fact that every person wore her own dress. She was not a model selected for her grace and ability to show off the good points but an every day farm woman who expected to wear her dress in the house or at church, and the girl who would use her sport dress when she was out with the other young folks in the neighborhood.

Blessings of Electricity
One doesn’t realize what electricity means to the farm woman who has recently seen miles of line built in her neighborhood until he can see her getting the family meals on her electric stove instead of sweltering over her old wood range. One Caldwell County farm housewife said she just didn’t see how she and her family had ever managed without electricity. “We cook with it, freeze with it, sweep with it, do our ironing, run the washing machine, and run the radio. If you add all that up, it means I am getting a lot of rest time I never thought I would have,” she added.

Observed During Farm and Home Week
Mrs. George May of Nash County received a certificate at State College for good home demonstration work on the same day her son was married in the afternoon . . . . The Honor Class of farm women, 63 strong, coming down the aisle of Pullen Hall in a long white line with lighted candles held aloft to typify the spread of knowledge from college to farm home . . . . Mr. and Mrs. Wilkens of Benvenue Community, Nash County, rejoicing over the last payment on their community club house, the receipt for which was presented Mrs. Wilkens, president of the club, just before she left for Raleigh . . . . The proportions to which the Jane S. McKimmon loan fund has grown in its short life of 11 years and the 29 girls it has helped educate . . . . Miss Grace Frysinger, Extension speaker from Washington, as she bade farm women “see beyond the clothesline to the sky-line” . . . . The appreciation of Judge Lois Mary McBride of Pennsylvania of the democratic attitude of Governor and Mrs. Hoey as they spoke to a North Carolina audience and sat through the Thursday night program manifesting their interest and affection for the people they represent.

Canning Cuts the Food Bill
Canning is the big thing in Camden County today and farm housewives are already talking in terms of two, three, and even 400 cans of vegetables and fruits, according to Miss Mary Teeter, Home Agent.
Farmers made little money on potatoes this year and women will have to be good managers to pull through. They are depending largely on what they all know well; that home-canned fruits and vegetables will cut the food bill materially when they are used to supplement what comes from the winter garden, and they are planning to plant that garden.

Dress Up Your Salad
A new flavor for a dressing is something to be desired in these hot days when the appetite needs to be stimulated and salads have been served with the usual mayonnaise, cheese, and plain French dressing.
Wake County people are using a vinegar for salads in which garden herbs have been soaked, and when used with oil to make a French dressing, it has a delicious flavor.

The vinegar is made by putting one tablespoon of dried sage, dried tarragon, celery seed and dill seed, with one pod of red pepper, one clove of garlic and one chopped onion in a quart jar and filling the jar with vinegar.

Let the mixture stand until it is well flavored before using it in a dressing and the jar may be refilled with vinegar for a second using.

Halifax County Cook Book
Halifax County food leaders are preparing a cook book which is meant for any housewife who desires good recipes.

Two of the county food leaders, Mrs. E.W. Dickens Jr. and Mrs. Seward Dickens, met with Miss Sallie Brooks, Assistant State Nutritionist, and Mrs. Wheeler, Home Agent, to complete their plans. They hope to have the book published very soon now. Don’t forget to write to N.C. State College for your copy.

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Kerr Scott, Commissioner of Agriculture, Helps Harvest Silage During Vacation, September 1943

Know this farmer? You ought to. He is none other than W. Kerr Scott, North Carolina’s Commissioner of Agriculture. A photographer caught him in overalls on his farm in Alamance County. Scott, who last spring encouraged state employees to hire themselves out as farm hands during their vacations, believes in practicing what he preaches. He spent his own vacation helping to put up some 450 tons of silage.

Monday, September 9, 2013

Mumford, Melvin, Gordon, Allen and Metcalf Were Trainee Agents, 1954

From the September, 1954, issue of Extension Farm-News

Five rising home economics seniors spent two months this summer working as trainee home demonstration agents.

The five are:
--Virginia Mumford, Meredith senior, who worked in Rowan County;
--Patty Melvin, Meredith senior, who worked in Wayne County;
--Patricia Gordon, Woman’s College senior, who worked in Yadkin;
--Sara Allen of woman’s College, who served in Columbus; and

--Lucille Metcalf of Berea College, who worked in Transylvania County.

Picking Cotton on the Cover of Carolina Co-operator, September, 1939

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Home Demonstration and 4-H Club News, September 1940

By Pauline Monroe in the September, 1940, issue of the Carolina Co-operator

Although 81 years old, Miss Gussie Carstaphen of Washington County believes in being prepared. Although there are only two in her family, she has canned more than 300 quarts of fruits, vegetables, and meats this year and is one of the most active members of her home demonstration club.

Granville County
Members of the Baily Home Demonstration Club in Granville County believe that all work and no play is good for nobody, and so they combined the two recently when they took a day off to improve the grounds of the Good Home Church. Their husbands and children helped to clean up the yard and plant flowers, and they stopped in the middle of the day for a picnic lunch which was enjoyed by all.

4-H Dress Review Winners
Hester Roberts of Robeson County won first prize in the 1940 4-H Dress Review held at N.C. State College with an all-purpose ensemble. The suit is beige and for correct street attire she wears the skirt with a plaid jacket and green blouse; complete suit with the green blouse is for church wear, and for school or sports costume she fastens a bib to the beige skirt with which she wears the green blouse.

Other prizes were won by Magdelene Dickerson of Vance County with the best dress; Mary Apperson of Davie County, informal party dress; and Ruth Bostian of New Hanover County, wash dress for school or sports wear.

Women’s Achievements
Over a period of 20 years, Mrs. J.V. Cargile of Madison County has built up a profitable business through growing and selling boxwood, which covers an entire acre and is valued at from $2,000 to $3,000.

Mrs. Florence Miller of Mocksville has recently improved her home to the extent of two coats of paint on the outside, papering and painting on the inside, and a number of minor improvements.

Mrs. Esther Higgins of Yancey County is the proud owner of a new pressure cooker, a prize awarded to the farm woman of the county making the most improvements to her home.

4-H Congress, Chicago
Miss Pat Graham, 16-year-old member of the 71st 4-H Club in Cumberland County, attended the 4-H Congress in Chicago as a result of conducting the best 4-H food preparation project in the state this year.
Fifteen other girls submitted project records in the contest and Miss Mary Louise Green of Morrisville, Route 1, in Durham County, was the second place winner. She will be the alternate in case Miss Graham cannot make the Chicago trip.

In announcing the results of the food preparation contest, Miss Frances MacGregor said that Miss Graham, daughter of Mrs. T.P. Graham of Fayetteville, Route 3, lives on a 20-acre farm and has been in club work for five years. Her club advisor was Miss Elizabeth Gainey, Cumberland County home demonstration agent. “Pat has completed 17 projects during her five years of 4-H Club work. She has conducted food preparation projects for three years, and poultry one year. Of course, she also has carried on health work all five years since this is a standard part of every club member’s activities. Pat was county health queen in 1938.”

This year Miss Graham prepared 603 meals and canned 376 quarts of food. Her ambition is to become a dietitian.

Anson County
Low income farm families of Anson County are turning our mattresses at the rate of almost 100 a week, reports J.W. Cameron, farm agent. To take care of applications received under the mattress-making program as set up originally, 276 bales of cotton and 24,690 yards of ticking have been shipped into the county. Families eligible to receive these mattresses assist in their making.