Saturday, January 31, 2015

B.F. White Recalls the Silk Industry in Alamance County, 1903

“Silk Raising a Half Century Ago” by B.F. White of Alamance County, from The Progressive Farmer, Raleigh, N.C., Tuesday, January 13, 1903

Reminiscences of the Industry Called Forth by the Effort to Revive It…The Story of a Silk Vest

Some time within the early 1830s a number of families in the Hawfields section of Orange County, now embraced in Alamance, raised more or less silk, though not in large quantities. The subject of silk raising has been agitated more or less from and before the settlement of the Swiss in New Bern and the surrounding country. The came from a mountainous country, ignorant of sanitary precautions and the requirements of a malarial climate. Many died, and most of the survivors met with a worse fate at the hands of the mistreated and outraged Indians, and perished horribly in the massacres of 1711 and 1713, after which the country from the coast to the Catawba River was almost entirely freed from the presence of the Red Men by a great battle fought near Kinston, where fully 1,000 men perished. Notwithstanding, the large grants of land made to Lord George Burrington, Governor of North Carolina, on condition that the grant should be settled by Swiss Protestants, no more Swiss emigrants and silk-growers ever came, and the only traces of Governor Burrington’s efforts to introduce silk culture in the Hawfields grant (afterwards the property of Samuel Strudwick and heirs) is a colossal stump of what is called English mulberry, still standing on the Orange and Alamance county line at the corner of William Kirkpatrick’s yard. For more than a hundred years it was property of the Mebanes, and for at least 75 years the militia were accustomed to assemble under its wide-spreading branches. Here stood the Colonel and other mounted officers on their prancing horses, while John Cox and Maj. Allen Jones, now an octogenarian, made their fifes squeal to the tunes of “Yankee Doodle” and “The Campbells Are Coming”; and George Tate, though only turned into his teens, with stooped shoulders and head turned aside, made his kettle-drum rattle; and Henderson Fowler, with the bass fully as large as a 50-gallon barrel, made the surrounding hills and vales re-echo with its thunder sounds, while under the shade of the tree in a corner of the fence stood the cake wagon of the mother of a United States Senator. (Pardon my digression.)

My father, having faith in the future of silk culture, never destroyed a mulberry, so his plantation had many trees on it. While my sisters, three in number, had been raising some silk for years, it was not till about the year `838 that they undertook to raise a considerable quantity. With 12 or 15 persons, including the slaves, the gathering of the mulberry leaves was not a heavy task. There were three little brothers of us, however, who needed a stimulus, for the novelty of caring for the worms soon wore off, and it was amazing to see the quantity of leaves the worms could eat. Feeding them interspersed with our fishing. Sister Margaret, who was the manager, promised each of us a vest, and from this time on she had little trouble about help. We little folks did little in gathering leaves, as those on the bushes and lower limbs had been gathered. It was our duty to feed them, and once or twice within their short lives to shift them and clean the tables on which they were raised.

As very few have seen silk-worms, a few words about them may be interesting to some. The moths do not fly. They are placed on clean, strong paper and soon afterward mate and deposit their eggs in thick patches. These adhere to the paper very closely. The paper must then be carefully folded and put away in a close place, excluding light, warmth and dampness as much as possible. Early in May the paper on which the eggs are laid should be placed on a table in a warm room where the papers will not be moved about. Within a few days they will begin to hatch. Care must be had not to have the eggs begin to hatch until the leaves are at least as large as a silver dollar. A few leaves may be laid on the eggs, but he worms when first hatched do not crawl much, nor do the eggs all hatch at the same time. With tender care the scattering ones must be lifted with the wing feather of a chicken or guinea fowl (the quill of the turkey and a goose is too large), and carefully placed on the leaves.

Their growth at first is slow. When about one-fourth or half grown they moult or shed; after this the growth is very rapid. At this period they are very delicate and must be kept dry and not fed on wet leaves.

Rats, mice, wrens and ants prey upon them. The depradations of ants may be prevented by setting the legs of the tables or benches upon which the worms are raised in water, dry ashes, or ringing them with tar.

Within a month or a little more the worm gets its growth. It then quits eating and begins to hunt a place to spin. The twigs of an oak left a day in the sun to make the leaves curl should be placed upon the tables. The worm soon takes to the curled leaves and spins its cocoon from its own body. The click of each turn can easily be heard. When this ceases the little spinners’ work is done. The cocoons are then gathered and subjected to heat to kill them. The rough outside is pulled from the cocoon and a sufficient number of them to make a thread the size wanted are placed in a pan of warm water. The end is easily found and is not easily broken.

When my vest was spun it was upon the old wheel used for spinning cotton. I suppose it took 40 cocoons to make a thread. From that to finish it was treated as all other weaving, being reeled into hanks, dyed and filled on quills. The warp was the finest cotton striped with vermillion, called turkey red, and sold in all the country stores. It was woven for Sunday wear and was practically indestructible, maintaining its gloss and bright colors to the last. My father wore his silk vest to Hillsboro. Colonel Shields, the leading merchant of the place, offered my sister the finest silk dress in his store to make him a pattern, but she did not accept the offer.
                                --B.F. White, Alamance County

Friday, January 30, 2015

Freezer Lockers for 'Huckleberry Land,' and Watauga Cattle in Demand, 1944

From the January 1944 issue of The Southern Planter

Freezer Lockers for Sampson Folk
Down in “huckleberry land,” Sampson farmers are preparing to build a 500-box freezer locker plant just as soon as the necessary War Production Board requirements can be met. Already, 333 of the lockers have been rented for one year and the money placed in the bank. The enthusiasm is so great that a local lumberman, R.A. McCullen, has agreed to underwrite the whole proposition. Additional rooms will be used for cooling and salting meat, and the farmers feel that the locker will aid them in their meat curing problems as well as assuring them of a supply of fresh meat, reports Sampson Farm Agent E.J. Morgan.

Watauga Cattle in Demand
The sound livestock program developed by Watauga farmers is paying dividends. Beef cattle growers in the county, not only are selling breeding stock to advantage; but, recently, they sold 55 head of high quality feeder animals to their neighbors of Robeson County.

This is the second consecutive year that Robeson farmers have purchased feeder steers in Watauga and the finished product has won most of the prizes at the Lumberton Fat Stock Show. Watauga also held its first sale of registered Ayrshire dairy cattle this fall when 22 head sold for $126 per animal. The livestock farmers have come to look upon their industry as a permanent thing and only7 recently they established a cooperative feed store in Boone to aid in the buying and distributing of such feed ingredients and farm supplies as must be purchased.

Thursday, January 29, 2015

'State News From Currituck to Cherokee' Jan. 13, 1903

“State News From Currituck to Cherokee,” from The Progressive Farmer, Raleigh, N.C., Tuesday, January 13, 1903

Items of Interest Gleaned from Our Correspondents and Exchanges

Troy Examiner: Teachers for the public schools are scarce in this county. Well prepared teachers are I demand, and this should be an inducement for teachers to prepare themselves thoroughly for this profession.

Salisbury Sun: Unity Township School District No. 4 is the first in this county to vote a special school tax. The election held this week resulted in an overwhelming majority for an additional tax of 60 cents on the poll and 20 cents on the $100 worth of real and personal property.

New Bern Journal: 40,000 birds were killed recently on the North Carolina coast for millinery purposes. They were mostly sandpipers. A society of ornithologists recently met in Philadelphia where this report was made. More strict laws regarding the killing of song-birds are needed.

The Washington Gazette and Messenger notes that a movement is already on foot to fittingly celebrate the 200th anniversary of the settlement of the town of Bath in 1905. Bath is the oldest town in the State and “it occupies,” says the Gazette, “the same position in the early history of North Carolina that Jamestown does to the State of Virginia.”

Durham Herald: Dr. H.F. Linscott, a member of the faculty of the University, died at his home in Chapel Hill Tuesday morning at an early hour. He had been extremely ill but a short while, and his death was a great surprise and shock to all of his numerous friends.

Quite a number of deer are being killed in Granville County this season—more than for years. It is nothing unusual for one of these animals to be brought into the city over the Oxford and Clarksville road.

Mooresville Enterprise: Mr. J.K. Valley, who is engaged in getting out poplar timber for shipment, has brought to this place for loading a large number of logs, several of which contain about 1,600 feet of lumber. The entire lot will average 1,200 feet to the log. These big logs will be shipped to a firm in Glasgow, Scotland, where they will be converted into various wares and into little wooden cups that are used by the merchants all over this country for vessels in which butter, lard, etc., is measured and weighed.

Colonel Olds: In May, 1899, Dr. C.P. Ambler of Ashville and Judge William R. Day of Cleveland, Ohio, went trout fishing in the beautiful “Sapphire country.” So impressed was Judge Day with the beauty of the scenery, the grandeur of the forests and the mountains, and the rare beauty of the artificial lakes which give the name of that region, that he readily fell in with Dr. Ambler’s idea that the National Government should step in to secure control of the region and preserve it for all time in its natural condition. Forest and Stream, a well-known weekly, says that from that fishing excursion dates the great movement to establish the Appalachian Park. Forest and Stream has further to say: “The outlook is bright for favorable action by Congress at the coming session. The Appalachian Park promises to be an assured fact. When the full history of the movement which led to its establishment shall be written, the first chapter must be begun with that chance Sapphire angling trip which proved to be so momentous.”

Lumberton Robesonian: At the election held in Sterling’s Township, in the Bloomingdale district, for the purpose of securing additional tax levy for public schools, those favoring the increase carried the day. In the Bethesda district the election was lost by six votes. It is, however, gratifying to know that even in this district, of the votes cast there were more for than against the tax. The difficulty was that the voters didn’t turn out. Bloomingdale’s good example will be followed by other districts in the county.

Greensboro Record; Hon. Lucius F.C. Garvin, who has just been elected the governor of Rhode Island, is a Democrat and lived in Greensboro before the war. HIs mother came here from Knoxville, where the now Governor was born, his father dying when he was six years old, and married the late Wash. McConnell. She was a teacher in Greensboro Female College. Mr. Garvin went to school at New Garden, but left here before the war and afterwards served in the Union Army. Many still living here remember Mr. Garvin. He is now 61 years of age.

There are 293 newspapers in this State. Of these, 28 are dailies—9 morning, 19 evening, with a total circulation of 45,575, or an average of only 1,700 each. There are 180 weeklies, with 266,461 circulation, an average of 1,480 each. There are 20 semi-weeklies, with 26,730 circulation; 44 monthlies, 61,175; 8 semi-monthlies, 28,025; 5 annuals, 198,350 (four of them almanacs). There are 142 Democratic, 17 Republican, 22 independent, 3 Populist, 9 Baptist, 4 Methodist, 5 Presbyterian, 12 educational, 2 literary, 4 medical, 2 agricultural, 2 textile, 1 industrial.

Exchange: The figures concerning the consolidation of public school districts, made public by State Superintendent of Public Instruction Joyner this week, are important. There were reported as being in existence on October 1st, 5,447 white school districts, 2,385 colored and 21 Croatan, a total of 7,853, which is a decrease of 262 since July 1st last.  This shows splendid work for a three-months period. It means for the consolidated districts better teachers, because they can be better paid; better school-houses, longer terms, and, in general, a stride forward in the grade of public instruction. Let this good work go on.

Next week Prof. T. Gilbert Pearson of Greensboro, the Secretary of the Audobon Society, will leave for the North Carolina coast to look after the protection of birds during the building season next spring and summer. That is the time when the bird murderers, the most ruthless of slayers, shoot the terns and gulls and other coast birds to sell their skins to New York feather dealers. The Audobon Society will this year have game wardens on the various islands and other breeding places, and break up this sort of thing. If the Legislature will only make some needed changes in the law regarding protection, and if (most important of all) the local officers will enforce the law, the best results will follow. Millions of birds have been slain on the coast, the old ones mainly for the feathers, while the young starved to death. It is a very pitiful thing. And there were North Carolinians among those murderers. The writer knows of one who feels compunctions of conscience for what he has done.

Charlotte Observer: A minister who was visiting the highest rank in his church was the late Rev. Dr. D.C. Rankin, editor4 of the Missionary, a magazine of the Southern Presbyterian Church, who died in Seoul, Corea [Korea], while traveling in the East. He was a native of Guilford County, and it is said that his ambitions were aroused and his life moulded, in a large degree, by Dr. Calvin H. Wiley, the father of the modern public-school system in North Carolina. That great educator was not only working in behalf of the school system in general, but he had an eye ever alert to find scholars in embryo. Another man who “discovered” a boy destined to make a name for himself in this State is Rev. R.L. Patterson, now of High Point, formerly of Morganton, and the lad is Artist Randall, in the front rank of portrait painters, and who walked all the way from the western part of the State to Chapel Hill, where he worked his way through to graduation.

Tarboro Southerner: Recently one or more of the State papers suggested that Union County was better sup-plied with telephones than any other county. If Edgecombe is not the best, the Southerner is much mistaken. Only one township out of the 14 is without a telephone. Only one village throughout the county, Sharpsburg, is without one. In whatever section of the county one goes, he is never more than three or four miles from a telephone. Not only is every village and hamlet so provided, but in the county a score or more farms have telephones connected with the main system. There are exchanges, exclusive of this place and Rocky Mount, at Battleboro, Whitakers, Dr. Speight’s, Lancasters and Crisp. Edgecombe is not behind in many things. Just now a peanut factor will knock another ancient bump off.

Wednesday, January 28, 2015

Don't Hire My Sons, 1919

Notice from the Watauga Democrat in Boone, N.C., January 2, 1919

Any and all persons are hereby forbidden to employ or harbor my two boys, Fred 15 years old and Parker, 13 years old. Any one giving them employment may expect to account to me for same. I will not be responsible for any debts contracted by them. Foscoe, N.C., Dec. 12

                                CHARLEY COFFEE

Rehearsal Party for Norvell-Witherspoon Wedding, 1913

From the Cherokee Scout, Murphy, N.C., January 3, 1913

A pretty event of last Monday evening was the rehearsal party at the home of Mr. and Mrs. George W. Candler, which was a delightful complement to Miss Margie Norvell and Mr. Don Witherspoon, after the rehearsal for their wedding, which took place on Tuesday morning.

The house was prettily decorated with white and green, the color scheme for the evening. The table in the dining room, around which the wedding party were seated, was beautiful in its artistic decorations. The table was completely covered with handsome Battenburg lace and had for a centerpiece a tall handled green basket tied with a large bow of white tulle.

Tuesday, January 27, 2015

What We Ask of the State Legislature, From Editorial in The Progressive Farmer, 1903

“What We Ask of the Legislature” from the editorial page of The Progressive Farmer, Raleigh, N.C., Tuesday, January 6, 1903

Economy but not parsimony. Steer clear both of stinginess and extravagance.

As few laws as possible. We have too many. In a multitude of statutes there is confusion.

Justice to rich and poor, individuals and corporations, alike. Do not cringe to wealth, as corrupt men do, in hope of gain; do not revile it, as demagogues do, in hope of popularity.

Justice to the negro, from whom, for the safety of the State, we have taken power. It requires neither courage nor manliness to jump on the man who is down. In the language of our Governor: “It is true that a superior race cannot submit to the rule of a weaker race without injury; it is also true in the long years of God that the strong cannot oppress the weak without destruction.”

A forward movement in education. It is not enough merely to hold the ground that we have gained. The State must continue its aid to the weaker districts. The rural school library appropriation should be extended. The salary of the State Superintendent should be increased. The study for the elements of agriculture should be provided for. Let us stop fostering the idea that education is needed only in commercial or professional life; let us direct attention to the El Dorado of undreamed-of possibilities in scientific agriculture.

A saving of child-life. The children of today will make the North Carolina of to-morrow, and the State must protect them to save herself. She must protect the children of the factories—whether from greedy capitalists or cruel parents it matters not. Nor must the wayward children be neglected. A reformatory should be established for them. The reformatory saves three-fourths of the young offenders to good citizenship; the jail, at about the same cost, trains three-fourths of them for further crime.

Temperance legislation. That asked by the Anti-Saloon League is reasonable and just. The law should assume that the people do not want whiskey unless they ask for it, not that whiskey is wanted everywhere except where it has been expressly prohibited.

An appropriate should be made for an agricultural building at the A. and M. College. Eighty-two per cent of our State’s population is agricultural. But though this 82 per cent has voted appropriates and paid taxes for the thorough equipment of the textile and mechanical departments of the College, the agricultural department is still in cramped quarters, wretchedly equipped. With the number of agricultural students doubled within two years, it becomes the imperative duty of the Legislature to heed this demand of the farmers of the State.

A better divorce law is needed; the one now in force discredits the State.

The insane must be cared for; there is no worthier charity.

A new Code would save confusion, worry, and lawyers’ fees.

The birds should be protected; they are being killed off too rapidly, and crop pests are increasing.

There should be no bond issue if it can be avoided, but it would be better to issue bonds than cripple our educational or charitable work.

Finally, “be just and fear not,” for “there is but one way only to serve the people well, and that is to do the right thing, trusting them as they may ever be trusted, to improve the things which count for the betterment of the State.”

E.S. Harris of Alamance County Gives Directions for Making Scrapple, 1903

“Scrapple,” from The Progressive Farmer, Raleigh, N.C., Tuesday, January 13, 1903

One hog’s head, clean. Put in large pot and cover with water. Boil until very tender or until the meat will leave the bones. Take out of the pot and mash very fine with the hands, removing all bone. Pour the liquid left in pot through a sieve or colander, removing all small particle of bone that might be left. Put the meat back in pot with the liquid, which should measure three quarts, if not add hot water enough to make that much. Season to taste with red pepper and salt. Place over the fire again and when boiling add two quarts corn meal, stirring constantly and until it becomes very stiff. Put in deep bowl and when cold, slice and brown.
                --E.S. Harris, Alamance County

Sunday, January 25, 2015

'For the Farm Woman' January, 1939

“For the Farm Woman” from Dr. Jane S. McKimmon, Assistant Director of State Extension, the January, 1939, issue of Carolina Co-operator

Water Systems
Mrs. Effie Scott of Guilford County, who has been carrying water from a spring on a steep hill for 30 years, has lately installed a water system in her house which will cut out all those trips up to the spring and down again. She has also secured electric current and can flood the house with light as well as run some of the step-saving conveniences.

Mrs. Ida Brookshire of Alexander County and her children did their own work in piping water from the spring to the back porch, and then to the milk box. They plan to pipe it into the kitchen as soon as they can get around to it.

Comfortable , Versatile Clothes
The Kernersville Home Demonstration Club in Forsyth County has demonstrated that women can go “around the clock with one frock” and be well dressed for all occasions.

With a well-made basic dress of good material, simple design, and not too pronounced in color, one can do a great deal toward stretching the clothing dollar, say these alert housewives. Accessories will work wonders and if one starts shopping in the morning and stops for lunch with a few friends, she can go on to tea or a meeting, transformed in appearance by the addition of a different collar, bag and pair of gloves. Not only the appearance will be helped by the change, but there will be a refreshened spirit.

From the Clemmons Club comes the declaration that the woman who takes care of her feet as well as her back is freshest at the end of the day. When she is thinking of her costume she should know the importance of well-fitted, comfortable shoes.

In Camden County they believe that shoes should be worn to protect and support the feet, but sometimes the wearer is more interested in satisfying the eye and the pocketbook than in selecting appropriate, durable and comfortable footwear.

Do not insist upon a certain size of shoes, but rather that they fit. Look at the ball of your foot, which is the widest at the large toe joint, and see if it is directly over the largest part of the shoe.

1939 Spending
In Johnston County in 1938 demonstrations in wise buying were recently given and pointers on the buying of electrical equipment were of great interest. The electric iron was of first importance; for the amount of money invested, it is probably one of the most helpful aids to the housewife. Refrigerators, however, ran a close second, but it was agreed that the washing machine probably saved the most labor. It does away with long soaking of the clothes and hard rubbing and wringing, and a woman can read the paper while it works or she may go about other duties in the home.

In purchasing a washing machine for your home, ask yourself these questions: Are the running parts encased in an airtight box filled with oil? Is there a safety release for the roller? Are the controls easily reached? Does the tub drain well? What type of wringer does it have, old type or the centrifugal dryer?

Order for Marmalade
Mrs. Spencer Dean of Franklin County has received an order for homemade orange-grapefruit marmalade from Royster’s in Raleigh, and Mrs. Cornelia Morris, home demonstration specialist, is highly pleased at her high quality product. It is beautifully packed in globe-shaped glass jars and has found its way to the gift Shop at Forestville.

Emergency Shelf
In Gaston County the county commissioners have appropriated $50 for an educational exhibit of an emergency shelf showing the things that may be canned on the farm to set aside to serve for an emergency meal.

This shelf will show not only variety but a high standard of quality, and will be placed in the home center in Gastonia. Twenty-five dollars will be spent for the exhibit and $25 for the case to hold it.

Cook Delicious Pork Thoroughly
When hog-killing time rolls round, the sharp winter tang in the air makes us hungry for crisp brown roast, well seasoned sausage, spare ribs, and crackling bread.

Pork is a nutritious meat found on most farms in North Carolina and can be easily prepared if the cook will give it time. All pork must be thoroughly cooked and roast pork is at its best when it is well done to the very center, juicy and with a crisp brown crust.

Thorough cooking not only develops the best flavor in pork but it is also necessary to destroy trichinae, a parasite occasionally found in fresh pork ad one with which you do not wish to get acquainted.

Women’s Activities
Mrs. J.W. Martin of Surry County has freshly waxed and stained floors in her house, thanks to muscle power, walnut hulls, beeswax and other ingredients. Write for Extension Pamphlet No. 14, which gives you the instructions Mrs. Martin followed.

Many of our rural farm wives belong to garden clubs in town or incorporate some of their teachings in community programs.

People drive from far and wide to buy fruit cakes baked by Mrs. N.J. Brown of Northampton County.

According to the Iredell County home agent, there are good reasons for recreation other than just joy. When men and women go swinging down the room in the grand march it is easy to see that fun is not all there is to it; grace is required and ability to follow directions, and it is also an excellent form of exercise.

Martin County women have been making brooms of broom corn which was saved last spring and harvested and cured in the early fall. Much experimenting was done at first, but those who stuck to it are turning out very good brooms.

In the Farm Kitchen
To prevent omission of flavoring in a cake, measure it into the milk or other liquid.

Use the water drained from canned vegetables for its mineral and flavor value in creamed soups.

Wrap cheese in a cloth wet with vinegar and store it in a cool place to keep it fresh.

Rinse the pan in hot water before boiling milk to prevent its sticking.

Saturday, January 24, 2015

North Carolina Counties With and Without Saloons, 1906

“The North Carolina Saloon Situation,” from The Progressive Farmer, Winton, N.C., Tuesday, January 6, 1903

North Carolina Baptist: From the best information we have, the following is the liquor situation in North Carolina by counties:
Counties Without Saloons—Alamance, Alexander, Alleghany, Ashe, Bladen, Burke, Cabarrus, Caldwell, Chatham, Cherokee, Clay, Cleveland, Columbus, Cumberland, Currituck, Davidson, Davie, Duplin, Gaston, Gates, Harnett, Henderson, Hyde, Jackson, Jones, Lincoln, Mitchell, Mongtomery, Moore, Pamlico, Pender, Perquimans, Polk, Randolph, Robeson, Sampson, Scotland, Stanley, Surry, Swain, Transylvania, Tyrrell, Watauga, Wilkes, Yadkin, Yancey.

Counties With Saloons—Anson, 5; Beaufort, 9; Bertie, 11; Brunswick, 2; Buncombe, 16; Camden, 3; Carteret, 2; Caswell, 2; Catawba, 3; Chowan, 8; Craven, 14; Dare, 1; Durham, 21; Edgecombe, 15; Forsyth, 9; Graham, 1; Granville, 4; Greene, 3; Guilford, 10; Halifax, 25; Johnson, 6; Lenoir, 13; McDowell, 2; Madison, 1; Martin, 24; Mecklenburg, 16; Nash, 13; New Hanover, 68; Onslow, 7; Orange, 3; Pasquotank, 10; Person, 3, Pitt, 25; Richmond, 9; Rockingham, 11; Rowan, 10; Stokes, 1; Vance, 7; Wake, 27; Washington, 11; Wayne, 17; Wilson, 24; Iredell, 3.

Counties with Dispensaries—Edgecombe, 1; Franklin, 1; Haywood, 1; Hertford, 1; Johnston, 4; Macon 1; Northampton, 1; Rutherford, 1; Union, 1; Warren, 1.
It will be observed that according to the above list there are 483 saloons in the State and 13 dispensaries. More than 300 of these saloons are found in 21 counties, whose sum total of negro population exceeds the white population.

Friday, January 23, 2015

Students Asked to Leave College; We Cannot Indulge Boys Who Do Not Work and Do Not Want to Work, 1906

From the Jan. 9, 1906, issue of the Semi-Weekly Messenger, Wilmington, N.C.

President Winston Tells Why Many Students Failed…40 of the 500 Students Did Not Return After the Holidays

Scenes all about the Agricultural and Mechanical college are all indicative of the fact that the holidays are a thing of the past as old students and new and untried ones pace the beautiful campus, ramble from place to place and pass in review for placement and the beginning of the work of the spring term. There were registered today 133 students, six of whom are new men, out of a total at the close of the holiday season of 467. Your correspondent called this afternoon and was admitted to an interview with President George T. Winston in regards to two matters of special interest, the first of these being the recent editorial utterance in the Wilmington Messenger, in which the president and the conduct of the college are caustically criticized. At first there was a soberness in the face of the president, and then he smiled and slowly said: “I have nothing to say in reply.” This utterance then suggested the rumor that has been heard for a day or two in regard to the failure of so many students to return to the college for the last half term, and there naturally followed a query from your correspondent as to the proportion of athletes among the students, and the average in their attainments under discipline. President Wilson entered into details of the situation and made clear the situation in all its various phrases. He said in part, as follows: “It is true that there are 41 students who have not been able to make the average required by this institution in order to remain with us. If we have boys here who are disposed to waste their own time, the means and indulgence of parents and guardians, and unnecessarily occupy rooms that would otherwise be occupied by earnest and painstaking students, and who place a needless tax and strain upon the teachers, we feel they should apply what energies and ability they may have in other lines to that particular thing and to relieve all other conditions, for they retard things. Out of a total of about 500 students, 40 failed in their work, and we had nothing to do but require them either to start again at the bottom, or to remain away from the college. Now out of this number, in regards to the matter of athletics, only five of these boys are athletes, and that cannot be charged against them or the institution. It simply means that the college and crowded and has been crowded, and as we are giving a practical, independent education, we therefore cannot be indulgent to the boys who do not work and do not want to work. We deal in utmost frankness with the boys and with their parents, and as quietly as possible inform them that work is the thing for them or the real beginning in preparatory schools and not with us here at the A. & M.”

The real situation is made more clear when the practical side of the matter is considered. President Winston is in receipt of a number of letters from students who failed as well as their parents. In some instances there is acceptance of the truth of the situation, and again there is complaint, but all in all it is as the head of the college says. “It is a waste of life and energy and everything else to allow such students to remain within the college.” In the end many will return to resume study at the first end, while others will not face the mortification, and will follow their own bents and enter the world of trade and traffic.

Dairy Campaign in WW II, 1942

January 1942 issue of the Farm Journal and Farmer’s Wife

Slogan for a dairy products campaign in Attala County, Mississippi: “Hitler Can’t Lick Mississippi Milk and Cream.”

Frank Myers Recovering from Typhoid, 1906

“Mr. Frank Myers Convalescing,” January 9, 1906, from The Semi-Weekly Messenger, Wilmington

The many friends of Mr. Frank K. Myers, located at Charleston, S.C., will be pleased to learn that his condition is much improved and each day marks an advance in his favor.

He has been ill with typhoid fever but reports are that he has passed the crisis and is now in a fair way of recovering. During his illness his mother, Mrs. C.D. Myers, has been a constant attendant at his bedside.

Thursday, January 22, 2015

Bridge To Be Built Over Pasquotank River; No More Tolls, 1921

“Legislation to Bridge the Pasquotank River,” from the Messenger, Elizabeth City, N.C., January 14, 1921

Pasquotank, Camden and Currituck Representatives United on Measure to Put an End to Tolls
A bill to be introduced in the General Assembly within the next few days is designed to do away with the toll bridge now connecting Elizabeth city and Pasquotank county with the neighboring counties of Camden and Currituck, by purchasing and improving the present toll bridge and its approaches or by building a new bridge and approaches at some point between the present bridge at Elizabeth City and the DeFord farm which is on the Camden side of the river, just beyond the Norfolk Southern R.R. bridge.

The proposed new bridge would be built jointly by the counties of Pasquotank, Camden and Currituck; 50 percent of the cost to be defrayed by Pasquotank, 33 1/3 percent by Camden, and 16 2/3 percent by Currituck. The three counties would maintain the bridge and its approaches on the same pro rata basis. Representatives Coke of Pasquotank, Morrisette of Camden and Johnson of Currituck are agreed on the measure and a tentative draft of the bill was made this week. The provisions of the act would be carried out by a commission of three, one to be appointed from each county. The chairmanship is to be in Elizabeth City. P.H. Williams, president of the Savings Bank & Trust Co., is slated for the chairmanship of the commission. The cost of the project has not been determined the bill probably will call for a maximum expenditure of $100,000 to $150,000.
The representatives behind this desirable piece of legislation evidently have no faith in the Ferebee Highway Act, which contemplated this very bridge problem and it is probable that the bill will be introduced by Representative Morrisette, who is a member of the Ferebee District Highway Commission.
No more important piece of legislation of peculiar interest to so many people in this immediate section will be introduced at this session of the General Assembly.

Minnie Hampden and Leon Doxey Wed, 1921

“Doxey-Hampden Wedding,” from the Messenger, Elizabeth City, N.C., January 14, 1921

The marriage of Miss Minnie Hampden to Mr. Leon Doxey was solemnized at the Asbury M.E. Church at Coinjock last Wednesday evening by the pastor, Rev. J.J. Lewis. The ceremony was witnessed by a large number of personal friends of the couple. Mr. Doxey is a prosperous young farmer of the community and the bride is the young daughter of Mrs. Lavinia Hampden of Coinjock. The couple is one of the most popular in that section. They will make their home in Coinjock.

Wednesday, January 21, 2015

Carolina Co-operator Magazine Thanks Jane S. McKimmon, 1940

Editorial from the January, 1940, Carolina Co-operator

When what was the North Carolina Cotton Grower was converted into the Carolina Co-operator five years ago this month, one of the first things our program was to ask the most widely beloved woman in North Carolina to serve as editor of our Home Department. Finding such a person was easy inasmuch as for more than a quarter of a century Dr. Jane S. McKimmon had labored long and untiringly as a pioneer in home demonstration work. “Miss Janie” was a practical leader and she knew that it would take money to make needed farm home improvements, so she set about organizing canning clubs and curb markets and other projects to help farm women have money of their own to spend as they pleased. Her program has been felt from the highest to the humblest farm home in the State and today as a result of her great work stand thousands of painted and well-furnished homes, more livable and enjoyable because of her vision.

Busy though she was, “Miss Janie” consented to add to her many responsibilities that of preparing copy for our Home Department each month. For the past five years her section has appeared regularly in the Co-operator as one of the most consistently read and one of the most valuable in this publication.

A short while ago, however, Dr. McKimmon was asked to draw upon her wealth of information (she was the pioneer in home demonstration work in North Carolina) to prepare for those to come later a history of the extension service from its early days on down to today. The work of assembling this information for publication in book form in the time allotted her has placed a heavy burden upon her and, therefore, she has asked that we temporarily relieve her of the responsibility of editing the Home Department.

Taking over as acting editor of the Home Department, effective with this issue, is Pauline Monroe, who has been an assistant editor of the Carolina Co-operator for the past five years.

Monday, January 19, 2015

Jennie Acton's Letter, Jan. 9, 1906

Letter from Jennie Acton, from The Semi-Weekly Messenger, Wilmington, N.C., published January 9, 1906. There’s a mention of an accident with a toy gun received for Christmas. In case you are wondering what happened, the child died of lockjaw.

Here I come wishing all of you a Happy New Year. What did you do Christmas? We had a delightful time—I have lived long enough to know that in promoting the happiness of others you add to your own. Especially is this true in regard to making children enjoy themselves. Our Christmas tree was a success, but we came very near having a serious time of it, as a candle ignited some of the paper ornaments on it, and in the scuffle which ensued Santa got on fire—or at least the cotton his suit was trimmed in did. There was plenty of help to put the fire out, and we were all right and soon got over the scare.

I never heard of so many accidents from toy pistols and guns. What is the matter with people that they have grown so careless? I have put my pistol away and am almost afraid to look at it for fear it will blaze away and shoot me anyway whether I touch it or not, and as to showing it to a friend, I never think of doing such a thing. I wonder if folks won’t be afraid to hunt after this? I would. It might be a good thing for the farmers if they would stop for a few years; then the partridges would be numerous enough to help them some. I don’t think there is any meat better than squirrel unless it is wild turkey, but tame ones are good, too.

Well, I do not usually tell my ailments, but I must tell you this time that I am afflicted with a stiff neck, and while I write I must sit perfectly erect and look over my cheeks at the paper or raise it so high that I can hardly write. I hope that in a few days I won’t be so high-headed and can see things at my feet.

Sunday, January 18, 2015

Samuel M.S. Rollinson Dies of Heart Attack, Jan. 14, 1921

“Samuel M.S. Rollinson is Victim of Heart Attack at Powell’s Point,” from the Messenger, Elizabeth City, N.C., January 14, 1921

After greeting a friend in a grocery store at Powell’s Point Monday afternoon, Samuel M.S. Rollinson, a well-known resident of Elizabeth City reeled and fell to the floor and died, a victim of heart failure.

Mr. Rollinson left here Monday on the Powell’s Point steamer to take orders at that point for the wholesale grocery firm of E.L. Woodard & Company of Norfolk. In company with A.S. Mann of Brock & Scott Produce Co. and D.D. Dudley of Sharper & White Hardware Co. of this city, he had complained of an annoying headache just before going aboard the boat. While making the trip to Powell’s Point, he smoked two or three cigars and talked at length of his younger days and the inconveniences he had undergone while making trips on boats then, as compared with the accommodations now.

After arriving at Powell’s Point, he walked all the way up the pier. He was unburdened as Mr. Dudley was carrying his baggage. The pier is about a quarter of a mile long and Mr. Rollinson remarked that a weak heart had often made it necessary for him to make two or three stops while walking asure from the boat on former trips.

Upon reaching the end of the pier the party continued the trip to the C.H. Brock store where Mr. Rollinson went to take orders. A few casual remarks had been exchanged with D.A. Morgan, who was there at the time, when Mr. Rollinson suddenly fell between Mr. Mann and Mr. Dudley, brushing them as he struck the floor. Mr. Mann instantly stooped and raised the head of the stricken man, unloosing his collar, while Mr. Dudley chafed his wrists. Cold water was brought and Mr. Mann bathed the forehead of Mr. Rollinson, without effect. He gave a gasp and lay still.

Mr. Rollinson was well known thru-out eastern North Carolina. He was born 56 years ago at Cape Hatteras where he entered in business as a young man. While at Hatteras he was an active Sunday School worker and bore the name of being the organizer and superintendent of the best Sunday School in the Methodist Conference at that time. He moved to Elizabeth City 23 years ago, took a position as salesman for J.B. Flora & Company, later going in business for himself. He conducted a wholesale grocery business here for several years until he lost the greater part of his stock by fire. He afterwards worked for W.H. Weatherly Company, and spent several years in Florida, where he conducted a fruit farm. He came back to Elizabeth City five or six years ago and has been a commercial traveler ever since. Because of his genial manner and cosmopolitan disposition, he was one of the most successful salesmen this city has known.

The deceased was a graduate of Trinity College, was formerly a member of the Board of Aldermen of this city, was a Royal Arch Mason, a member of the Junior Order and of the Red Men. He is survived by his wife who was Miss Elizabeth Elizabeth Fulcher of Cape Hatteras. He is also survived by one daughter, Mrs. Harry G. Kramer of this city; four sons, John Rollinson of Savannah, Ga., Robert G. Rollinson of Norfolk, Harry G. Rollinson and Alonza Rollinson of this city; one brother, W.H. Rollinson of Cape Hatteras; and one sister, Mrs. M. W.Willis of Morehead City.

The funeral was conducted from the First Methodist Church Wednesday afternoon by the pastor, Rev. J.M. Ormond. The church choir sang “Grace, ‘tis a charming sound”, “Beautiful Isle of Somewhere” and “Face to Face.” Eureka Lodge of Masons, of which Mr. Rollinson was a member, turned out in a body and marched to Hollywood Cemetery where interment followed.

How Will We Help Those Who Cannot Find Work? 1937

“Letter to the Editor,” from the January, 1937, issue of The Southern Planter

What are we going to do about the man past 40 who, through no fault of his own, loses his job and cannot find another because of his age? He has a family to support and is just as strong and able to work as ever. He does not want charity but just a chance to make his living as he has always done before.

What is our country going to do about this? If no one will employ him, I think the old age pension will have to be moved back to 40 years instead of 65.
            --Mrs. Charles J. Kersh, Route 4, Harrisonburg, Virginia

Jokes from The Southern Planter, 1937

“Just For Fun” from the January, 1937, issue of The Southern Planter

“It may be so,” said Uncle Joe,

“How Silence is mankinds’ best bet;

But in our pens are cacklin’ hens’

The quiet ones, By Gosh, we’ve et.”


Mess Cook: “Did you say you wanted those eggs turned over?”

Soldier: “Yeah, to the Museum of Natural History.”


A woman has two views of a secret. Either it’s not worth keeping or it’s too good to keep!


“That means fight where I come from!”

“Well, why don’t you fight then?”

“Cause I ain’t where I come from.”


It’s not so much the cost of the car that worries the prospective owner, but the upkeep.

And sometimes the turnover.


“Does Mr. Bilks pay his debts?”

“Yes, he returns our snow shovel in spring and borrows our lawn mower.”


Teacher: “What do you understand by the word deficit, Johnny?”

Johnny: “It’s what you’ve got when you haven’t got as much as you had when you had nuthin’.”


Teacher: “Who lived in the garden of Eden?”

Little Girl: “The Adams.”

Saturday, January 17, 2015

Introducing the New Minister at City Road M.E. Church, Elizabeth City, 1921

From the Messenger, Elizabeth City, N.C., January 14, 1921

His first name is Hiram. That is why he splits his name in the middle. Maybe if your first name were Hiram you would do the same thing.

Mr. H. Earl Myers is the new pastor of City Road M.E. Church South in this city. He is 31 years old and carries no marriage certificate. City Road Church had a married pastor before the last Conference sent them Mr. Myers. Married ministers are not great successes in managing a choir. City Road likes a full choir loft.

Mr. Myers is a native of Anson County and was raised on a farm. Having worked on a farm in Anson county you can’t blame him for getting into the ministry. And so he went to Trinity College and graduated there. He has served three charges besides Elizabeth City; at Graham, N.C., Manchester, N.H., and Salisbury, N.C. He came to Elizabeth City from Salisbury.

Before entering the ministry he took a turn at commercial salesmanship and traveled for a while. That traveling salesman experience did much to humanize him and give him a broader view of men and things than the average theological student is permitted to acquire. He is a genial, jolly, energetic, masculine minister and the prediction is that the will make good with his new charge.

Agricultural News, North Carolina, January, 1935

From the January, 1935, issue of Carolina Co-Operator

99 to 1
Almost complete official returns from the Kerr-Scott referendum show that North Carolina farmers voted more than 99 per cent for retention of the tobacco control act in 1935.

The vote: 135,800 for compulsory control; 1,263 against.

And so voluntary adjustment contracts, signed by North Carolina growers last winter, will be continued through 1935.

The allotments will be larger, however, and growers may produce either 85 or 90 per cent of their base acreage, but those who produce 90 per cent will get smaller rental payments.

The grower who produces 85 per cent will receive rental payments at the rate of $17.50 an acre on the 15 per cent of his tobacco land retired from cultivation. The grower who produces 90 per cent will receive $8.75 per acre on the 10 per cent of the tobacco land he retires.

Adjustment payments will be 6 ¼ per cent of the net market value of the 1935 crop and the deficiency payments will be at the rate of 1 cent a pound on the amount of tobacco by which a grower may fail to produce his allotment.

The rate of the adjustment payment will be increased for growers with a base of less than 4 acres, with the maximum rate being 12 ½ per cent of the value of the 1935 crop.

How About 1935?
Predictions that agricultural income will continue to increase in 1935, the AAA has estimated that a total of $476 million will be paid this year to 3 million farmers participating in adjustments program.

$10 a Bale
Payment of a $10 a bale on surplus cotton tax-exemption certificates placed in the national pool will be made soon, according to Dean I.O. Schaub of State College. The other $10 a bale will be distributed among the growers when the pool is closed, he said.

Friday, January 16, 2015

Providing Care for Veterans, 1921

“Marines Did Get Something; Dr. Saliba Got Only About 75 Percent of Money Paid for Their Keep,” from the Messenger, Elizabeth City, N.C., January 14, 1921

That the U.S. government paid in round numbers $40,000 for the care of certain convalescent sailors and marines at the Elizabeth City Hospital from Nov. 1, 1918 to May 1, 1919, and that Dr. John Saliba, owner of the hospital property pulled down more than $30,000 in profits from the transaction, were rather interesting facts brought out in the suit of J.H. LeRoy against Dr. John Saliba in the Superior Court in this county. And by the decision of the court Dr. Saliba will have to divide about $20,000 of these profits equally with the plaintiff LeRoy.

The case went to trial Thursday morning, Jan. 6, and went to the jury late Saturday afternoon. The jury returned a verdict Saturday night after having been out over four hours.

Mr. LeRoy alleged that he entered into a verbal contract with Dr. Saliba when the hospital was opened for the care of the overflow of convalescents from the U.S. Marine Hospital at Norfolk. Saliba was to get $4 a day for the care of each man sent here. Saliba was to pocket $1 of this amount and LeRoy was to undertake to run the hospital on the remaining $3 per diem per man. If LeRoy showed a profit in the management of the hospital he and Saliba were to divide on a 50-50 basis. So Mr. LeRoy contended. But when the time came to settle, Dr. Saliba claimed that he had hired Mr. LeRoy and his wife on a flat salary of $125 a month for the two of them. And ‘nary’ a cent more would he pay. LeRoy had made about $20,000 for the hospital out of $30,000 allowed for operating expenses after Dr. Saliba had taken his $10,000.

The question for the jury in the case was: “Did the plaintiff and defendant enter into contract of partnership as alleged in the complaint.” The jury’s answer to the issue was Yes. It now remains for a referee appointed by the court to go over Hospital records and award Mr. LeRoy approximately one fourth of something like $40,000 paid Saliba by the government from Nov. 1 to May 1.

Attorneys for the plaintiff were Meekins & McMullan, Ehringhaus & Small, Thompson & Wilson.

Union County Had Longest Growing Season in 40 Years, 1942

January 1942 issue of the Farm Journal and Farmer’s Wife

The longest growing season in 40 years came to Union County, North Carolina, in 1941. Records kept by T.A. Ashcroft show that the last killing frost in spring was March 30, first killing frost in fall was November 9, making a growing season of 223 days.

Cigarette and Opium Fiend Described as a 'Typical Degenerate', 1906

“A Dope Fiend Drugs a Charlotte Woman and Steals Her Money, Arrested in Greensboro,” from The Semi-Weekly Messenger, Wilmington, published January 9, 1906

A Charlotte policeman came here today and took to that city a white man giving his name as J.W. Cardwell. This man is accused of having doped a woman in Charlotte and stolen $70 from her. He was arrested here yesterday and made no denial of having taken the money, but says he was morphine and whiskey drunk at the time, and upon coming to his senses in Greensboro he found that he had spent $30 of the money for clothing, etc., and at once telegraphed the remaining $40 back to the woman. It was a fact that he had sent $40 as he stated, as the telegraph office showed.
Another corroborative circumstance is that the Greensboro policemen on description of party wanted in Charlotte, was looking for a hobo appearing fellow. After a two days’ search they arrested a well-dressed young fellow in a restaurant yesterday who proved to be the man wanted. He had on his new riggings from his nobby cap to his socks and underwear. The fellow freely admitted that he was a cigarette and opium fiend and looked to be not over 18 years of age. The Charlotte police who took him to Charlotte says he also stole a quantity of drugs from a drug firm there. He is plainly a typical degenerate.
                --Greensboro, Special to the Charlotte Observer

Thursday, January 15, 2015

A.N Venters of Gum Branch Community in Onslow County Produces 'Food for Freedom', 1944

From the January 1944 issue of The Southern Planter
How North Carolina farmers responded to the call for “Food for Freedom” is shown by A.N. Venters of Gum Branch Community in Onslow County. His county farm agent, Hugh Overstreet, says Mr. Venters produced the following supplies this past season: 125 head of live hogs averaging 246 pounds each, providing 30,000 pounds of pork; 7 head of beef cattle, averaging 900 pounds per head or 6,300 pounds; 125 broilers; 175 dozen eggs; six lambs for mutton; 25 acres of peanuts; 30 acres of soybeans; five acres of sweet potatoes; 95 acres of corn averaging 30 bushels an acre or 2,850 bushels total; 12 acres of crimson clover; 24 acres of lespedeza; six acres of wheat; 10 acres of oats; and 10 acres of vetch.
Mr. Venters has on his farm now 18 brood sows, 22 head of sheep and 24 head of beef cattle. In addition, he maintains an excellent year-round Victory Garden. He is only one of many thousands in the State who have taken seriously the government’s request to produce food for war purposes.

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

No Deaths and No Births in Stumpy Point in 1920

“Nothing for Undertakers and Doctors at Stumpy Point,” from the Messenger, Elizabeth City, N.C., January 14, 1921

According to A.G. Twiford of Stumpy Point, who was in town the other day, that thriving town offers no promising field for undertakers and doctors. There has been only one death in the place in over a year. No sickness to speak of during that time and nobody has been hurt. And due to the warm weather probably, the stork seems to have neglected the place altogether. Nobody is making home brew there so nobody gets drunk, there have been no disturbances there and the 250 inhabitants of the place have nothing exciting to entertain them, but the prospects for a profitable fishing season this Spring.

Marshall Jones and Cecil Garrett Promoted at First & Citizen's National Bank, Elizabeth City, 1921

“Marshall Jones Is Now Cashier and Cecil F. Garrett Succeeds Him as Assistant Cashier of First & Citizen’s National Bank,” made the front page of the Messenger, Elizabeth City, N.C., January 14, 1921

Marshall H. Jones, the hustling Assistant Cashier of the First & Citizens National Bank, was elected to the post of Cashier at the directors meeting.

The promotion of Mr. Jones is quite in keeping with his career. Tho only 30 years old he has by perseverance and application made good since he started in college in 1911. After two years’ work in college he found himself in need of money and applied for a position of assistant cashier at a salary of $1,000 a year. In the meantime, he pursued his studies at Wake Forest College, where he mastered five years’ work in four years and graduated in 1915 with A.B. and M.A. degrees to his credit.

In August 1918 he assumed the duties of Assistant Cashier of the First & Citizens National Bank of this city and since the beginning of that time has made himself a popular and efficient official.

Cecil F. Garrett, a native of Elizabeth City and a promising young business man, was elected to fill the vacancy created by the promotion of Mr. Jones. Mr. Garrett was formerly with the Norfolk-Southern Railroad which he left about three years ago in order to take up the position of teller in the Bank.

W.G. Gaither, a former Cashier, will assume the duties of active Vice-President, after having been cashier for seven years. Under his administration the bank has experienced the most rapid growth in its history.

Other officers elected at the directors’ meeting were C.H. Robinson, president; Dr. L.S. Blades, vice-president; W.C. Glover, vice-president; and M.R. Griffin, assistant cashier.

Tuesday, January 13, 2015

Grateful for Electric Lights, Iron and a Boarder Who Brought a Radio and Added Music to Life, 1939

From the January 1939 issue of The Southern Planter

As the saying goes, ‘10 years were added to my life,’ and in only three weeks. The explanation: Just recently the power line came through our community. We were proud we could afford lights and iron. Then I started boarding a teacher who brought her own radio with her and gave the family the privilege of playing it when we cared to, and this is what added 10 years. I’ve always loved dancing and music and now to turn on the radio takes me back to younger days when they meant everything to me, and it even seems to lighten my work.

--Mrs. E.G. Lane, Greenfield, Virginia

New Wave of Immigrants Taking Jobs from American Negroes, 1906

“Italians in Dixie,” from The Semi-Weekly Messenger, Wilmington, published January 9, 1906

Negro’s Future Threatened by Competition…In the Cotton Fields the Negro Must be Alive if He Would Not be Supplanted

The session of the American Economic Associations were resumed today, the chief subject for discussion being “The Economic Future of the Negro.” This discussion was participated in by Charles L. Raper, University of North Carolina; R.C. Bruce, Tuskegee Institute; and Theodore Marburg of Baltimore. W.E.B. DuBois of Atlanta University and Alfred Holstone of Mississippi read papers.

The greatest fact in the negroes’ past economic history, Mr. Stone believes to have been the absence of white competition in the south. The gravest factor in his future is the steady increase of such competition. He quoted numerous negro authorities on the subject of this competition in northern cities in driving negroes into menial occupations, and concluded that the masses of the race had but little to hope for in this section. In fact, the leaders of the negro, with singular unanimity agree that the destiny of their people must be worked out in the south and upon the soil. Hence the question of white competitions in the south becomes one of paramount importance.

Mr. Stone quoted at considerable length from statistical data gathered by himself showing the comparative results obtained by negroes and Italians growing cotton side by side. The figures covered a series of years, and showed that when the two classes worked under identical conditions on the same plantation, the Italian accomplished very much more than the negro, both in the amount of cotton produced and in the matter of saving what he earns. Mr. Stone says that the ability of the white foreigner successfully to grow cotton in competition with the negro is no longer a matter of question or experiment. As to the extent to which they will come into the south and supplant the negro, he does not express an opinion, but thinks it will largely depend on the negro himself. If the latter continues to invite such competition, by his improvidence and unreliability, unquestionably it will come. When it does come there seems to be nothing in such a situation to prevent a repetition of the disastrous results already witnessed in the north.

                --Baltimore Dispatch

Sunday, January 11, 2015

Instead of Going to School, 10-year-old Raleigh Girl Takes Train to Winston-Salem, 1906

“A Truant Little Tot,” from The Semi-Weekly Messenger, Wilmington, published January 9, 1906. Little Lucy was returned to her aunt’s home in Raleigh, but I wonder if she ever say her parents again.

A 10-year-old Girl Runs Away from Raleigh and Lands in Winston
When the train from Raleigh arrived here yesterday afternoon at 2:45, a pretty little girl 10 years old, brunette type, and bearing as her only baggage a school satchel full of books, stepped off the train and in a diffident, hesitating way asked if any one could tell her where her mother lived. When asked her name and where she was from, she replied: “My name is Lucy Reaves and I come from Raleigh.”

Then, as if she had just remembered it, she said, “No my aunt’s name is Reaves, my name is Lucy Beidler, and mama lives here. She used to live in Virginia when I went to my aunt’s to live. But she moved here, and I got a letter from her after she moved here, and I have come to see her.”

No one could tell her where her mother lived, and she began to cry. Conductor Guthrie comforted her and carried her to the Phoenix Hotel lobby, where she was soon the center of an intensely interest group of drummers and citizens.

Her story, as well as she could be induced to tell it between sobs, is as follows. She has been living with her aunt, a Mrs. Reaves at Raleigh and was a pupil at the Wiley school. She has lived with her aunt since 1901. The name of her parents is Biedler. They lived in Culpeper, Va., in 1901, when they sent her to live with her aunt at Raleigh. She has not seen her mother since, but received a letter from this city saying that she had moved her, was staying in a millinery store and had 150 hens and was getting a lot of eggs. It was about a year ago when she received the letter. Her father, she said, was a farmer before she left home at Culpepper, Va.

When asked how she came to leave her aunt, she said, “I wanted to see my mother. I had saved up some Christmas money and my aunt had given me some, and I just made up my mind to come. I asked and somebody told me how to come. I went to the depot and asked how much was the ticket to Winston and the man told me $1.80. I had one dollar and eighty-five cents, so I brought the ticket and got on the train.” She had just five cents when she reached the city.

When asked about changing cars at Greensboro, she said a nice old gentleman talked to her on the train from Raleigh and told her how to do when she got to Greensboro.

No family by the name of Biedler is known in either Winston or Salem or in the suburbs.

The little runaway lady is quite pretty, with dark hair and eyes, and very intelligent. Her clothing was neat and warm. She wore a cloak and little toboggan cap and nice shoes and stockings. She was evidently being well cared for.

The books in her satchel bore the name Lucy Reaves and the date 1904. She had evidently started to schools when she made up her mind to come to Winston-Salem. She brought nothing but her little self, the satchel of books and a nickel.
                --Winston Journal

Blondes To Replace Brunettes as Most Beautiful Southern Women? 1906

“The President Called Her the Most Beautiful Woman He Saw in the South,” from The Semi-Weekly Messenger, Wilmington, published January 9, 1906

When President Roosevelt was in Atlanta on his recent Southern tour he shattered the traditional standard upon which the most beautiful women of the south have been gauged. The tall, slender, vivacious, pink rose girl with big hazel eyes and an abundance of soft brown hair, who was undisputed queen, has been dethroned. The petite blonde of the lily of the valley type with eyes of finest blue and a crown of buff gold hair has taken her place.

At the reception given to Mr. Roosevelt in Atlanta, Miss Selma Adelaide Allen was one of the hundreds of lady guests who in line awaited their opportunity to be presented to the President. After shaking hands with a large number he was interrupted by Secretary Loeb, who told him he was exceeding his time limit.

“Oh, very well,” said the President, “but I can’t go until I have been presented to that young lady over there,” pointing to the graceful shrinking figure of Miss Allen. She was told of the President’s wish and was led blushing and smiling to where he stood and was presented to him.

“I am honored,” said Mr. Roosevelt, while holding her hand, as is a custom with those who particularly attract him,” to meet the most beautiful woman I have seen in the south.”

It was a moment of supreme happiness, as well as embarrassment, to the young lady, who managed to say, quite modestly, “Oh, I thank you, Mr. President, but I am afraid our southern hospitality has blinded you somewhat to our defects.”

The band struck up “The Prettiest Girl in Georgia.” Men and women gathered congratulating the recipient of the President’s favor, and quicker than it can be told a new standard had been set for the most beautiful southern woman. Miss Allen is a remarkable woman, one of the fairest flowers of Atlanta’s rose-bud garden of girls. Her blue eyes, under dark lashes, complexion of blended roses and gardenia, well poised head, crowned in vivid gold, presents what De Vela would term “a glorious color scheme. We have the Gibson girl, with variations; now the south has the Roosevelt girl.

Friday, January 9, 2015

Ten Acres Is Enough, 1906

“Ten Acres Enough,” from the Editorial Page of the Jan. 9, 1906, issue of the Semi-Weekly Messenger, Wilmington, N.C.

We are indebted to the Carolina Trucking Development Company for a copy of a very charming little book bearing the above title. This book, bound in cloth, octavo size, of 250 pages, is a remarkable one in more respects than one. It is on the subject of intensive farming and was written to show what a man of pluck and energy could do in the way of making a competency for himself and family on a small farm by growing fruits and vegetables for the city markets. It is an interesting account of the experiences of a man who gave up his business in a city and moved with his wife and six children to an 11-acre farm purchased and stocked out of the proceeds of the sale of his business in the city. There is much of advice and practical information in it for those who contemplate truck farming, and it will afford pleasant reading to others not intending to take up such occupation. It is an interesting and pleasantly written account of the experiences of this family—as interesting as a novel. But it is not a fancy sketch of present day conditions; for a remarkable circumstance about the book is that it was written about 40 years ago and portrayed the conditions then existing.

For some years the book has been out of print. The Cultivator Publishing Company of Atlanta has issued a reprint of the original, and in the preface it is stated that the conditions existing at the time of the issue of the original were so similar in many respects regarding the matters therein treated that it was found necessary to make remarkably few changes, only one or two chapters requiring rewriting, these being such as on the subjects of “Revolution in Agriculture” and “Where to Locate.”

The book is exactly the thing for farmers and truckers in this section of the country whose chief aim is to contract the area planted and at the same time expand the results of their farming. A general distribution of this book among the truckers of eastern North Carolina would, we believe, have good results in aiding in increasing the value of the trucking business of our section.

We remember reading a few years ago an account of a Frenchman who lived near Paris and supported his family on the proceeds from sales of the products of a quarter of an acre of land. His was farming of the most intensive kind with frequent repetition of crops. Every square inch of his little patch of ground was highly fertilized and was kept growing one kind or another of crops all the time.

This Frenchman’s experience and success was referred to in this article.

“Ten Acres Enough”—This is the key note to successful truck farming in this section, as well as elsewhere. What we need to make farming successful to the farmers and a means of adding to the general prosperity of our section is to have the old plantations and the waste lands divided into small farms whose owners or renters can cultivate carefully and keep under a high state of fertilization.

We are glad to know that a movement looking to this end is being energetically and intelligently pushed in our midst. Small farmers with a good class of owners or tenants, whatever their nationality may be, is the present-day need of our section and we are glad to believe that in the very near future this much desired state of affairs will be realized.

Accompanying the book treated of in this article is a chart “showing times for planting different crops in Wilmington section” designating for each month of the year the vegetables which should be planted. This chart was prepared by Mr. Albert S. Root, soil expert for the Carolina Trucking Development Company, showing that in this section gardening and truck farming can be carried on the whole year round.

January—English peas, radish, onions, beets, and cabbages; the last three are planted in hot beds; also figs, grape vines, fruit trees and cassava.

February—English peas, radish, beets, cabbage, tomatoes, egg plant, carrots, peppers, Irish potatoes, turnips, spinach; figs, fruit trees, grapes and cassava.

March—Onions, radish, Irish potatoes, turnips, beets, cabbage, tomatoes, peppers, spinach, egg plant, and rhubarb.

April—Cantaloupes, watermelons, beans, table peas, okra, cucumbers, squash, corn, sweet potatoes, onions, tomatoes, beets, pepper, asparagus, and rhubarb; also cow peas, velvet beans and teosinte.

May—Corn, squash, beans, late melons, cucumbers, tomatoes, okra, sweet potatoes, asparagus, beans, peas, squash and velvet beans.

June—Beans, tomatoes, corn, cow peas and velvet beans.

July—Rutabaga turnips, cow peas, cabbage, beans, beets, Brussels sprouts, Irish potatoes and strawberries.

August—Strawberries, turnips, collards, kale, beans, Brussel sprouts, cabbage, beets, and lettuce in latter part of month.

September—Mustard, collards, cabbage, kale, turnips, strawberries, and lettuce first part of month; also alfalfa, clover and vetch.

October—Lettuce, strawberries and lettuce first part of month; also alfalfa, clover and vetch.

November—Strawberries, spinach, cabbage, beets, lettuce, turnips, kale, cauliflower, clover, alfalfa and vetch.

December—Strawberries, turnips, spinach, onion sets, beets and cabbage under glass; and figs, fruit trees, grapes, clover, alfalfa and vetch early part of the month.