Friday, October 31, 2014

With the War in Europe, Tourism Should Increase Here, 1914

“See the South,” from the Ashville Citizen, October, 1914

It must be apparent to the most obtuse mind that the millions of dollars which have been spent annually in Europe by American tourists will stay in the United States next year, and the question naturally arises as to where travelers who have no taste for blood-stained fields of battle will spend their leisure time and surplus cash. Naturally the South stands forward with the strongest claim along the line of scenic and climatic advantages. Rich in the possession of numerous resorts, and boasting natural beauties which even Europe cannot surpass, the South is the logical point for Americans who have not seen half the wonders of their own country. “See American First” is an old and appealing slogan, and the Citizen would suggest that “See the South” should carry even greater force when properly presented. Under this head of course would come Western North Carolina, and we believe that a well-directed campaign at the hands of the Western North Carolina Association and other bodies would make the “See the South” slogan heard and heeded throughout the country.

These thoughts are not born of idle visions. It stands to reason that the thousands of Americans who have been accustomed to travel in Europe will cast about for substitute fields. As recently remarked in these columns, the appeal of America will undoubtedly find ready response even in the lands that are now passing through the horrors of war. The wealthy classes of Europe must eventually turn to a land where war and its attendant disasters are unknown, and we confidently look forward to the time when all lines of American life will receive potent additions from the ranks of European refugees.

But to return to our own people and our own section, the South has never faced greater opportunities than it faces today, and the results to be attained rest wholly with Southerners themselves. It goes without saying that other sections of the country are fully alive to the present situation, and the South must be up and doing.

Thursday, October 30, 2014

Prospect Hill Country Store, 1940

Two photos from the U.S. Library of Congress, showing an old country store, Prospect Hill, Caswell County. The photos were taken by a WPA worker in October 1940.


Udney Maria Blakely, the Only Child Adopted by the State of North Carolina

From the Wagauga Democrat, Boone, N.C., October 22, 1914

Did you know that North Carolina once adopted a child? Not many of the people of North Carolina know about that adopted daughter of North Carolina. Dr. R.W.D. Connor tells about her in his book, “Makers of North Carolina History.”

Capt. Johnson Blakely was, during the War of 1812, commander of the Wasp, a vessel that did great destruction to the English vessels, destroying 13 British merchant vessels and sinking two men of war within 60 days. Before the war of 1812, Capt. Blakely won great reputation fighting pirates on the Mediterranean Sea. While waiting for the Wasp to be built at Portsmouth, N.H., Captain Blakely was married. He sailed away after the vessel which he commanded was completed and after displaying wonderful bravery and winning fame by the victories his ship had won on the high seas, his vessel was lost and no one knows the fate of Captain Johnson Blakely of Wilmington, his ship nor any of the 173 men composing the crew of the Wasp.

A daughter was born to Captain Blakely while every one was guessing his fate. Her name was Udney Maria Blakely. As Captain Johnson Blakely did not return to receive the honors, the Legislature of 1814 decided to make a gift to his daughter. The Governor was asked to send to Mrs. Blakely a handsome tea set to be kept by her and presented to the infant daughter of Johnson Blakely at the age of 15 years. At the same time the Legislature determined to adopt the little girls at the daughter of North Carolina, and to have her educated at the expense of the State. As soon as Udney Maria was old enough, she was placed in school in Philadelphia and twice very year, until 1828, the Governor of North Carolina sent to her guardian the money to pay her expenses. Five years after Capt. Blakely’s death, Mrs. Blakely was married again and moved to the island of St. Croix in the West Indies. When she finished school, Udney Maria joined her mother and she died on the island of St. Croix in 1842. She was the only daughter ever adopted by the State of North Carolina.

Wednesday, October 29, 2014

Promoting Building Techniques that Withstand Tornadoes and Hurricanes, 1927

“Building to Resist Cyclones and Hurricanes” by L. Kraemer, Construction Engineer, Southern Pine Association, in the October, 1927, issue of The Bureau Farmer.

Each year hurricanes, tornadoes and cyclones collect their toll, destroying buildings and sometimes whipping out whole villages. And after each one has passed we hear about the “freaks of the storm.” Here is a single building standing intact with only a few broken windows, while all those that were around it were destroyed. Here is one that was lifted off its foundation and set down 20 feet away but otherwise unharmed. Here is a small frame building without a scratch, while the brick school building across the street that everyone thought was so safe, is lying in ruins with great loss of life.

But are these really freaks of the storm? If they are, it is a strange coincidence that in each building that stood without damage we have found the same principles of construction, while in every building that was damaged we can trace the damage to the omission of one or more of the simple details of safe construction. The building that was moved from its foundation but was otherwise undamaged was built right except that it was not anchored to its foundation. The building that was unroofed had all the safety details built into it except that the builder forgot to anchor the roof. The beautiful brick school building that everyone thought was so safe would have been if the designer had put in cross walls to brace the sidewalls, or had built more piers that were tied together across the building. In no case was it a fault of the material that was used nor a “freak of the storm” that permitted the building to stand, but instead was entirely the way the chosen material was used.

Before we can fully appreciate why it is necessary to do certain things to make a building safe, we must first appreciate the limitations that apply to the chosen material. Lumber, like any other building material, has its limitations, but fortunately they are easily understood, so with a little thought given to construction methods almost anyone can build a frame building that will weather any storm it will ever be likely to be called upon to weather.

Safety in frame construction is based entirely upon the principle of a triangle. Perhaps we can understand this better by imagining four pieces of lumber nailed together so as to form a square. If we turn this square up on one corner and press on the opposite corner, we have no difficulty at all in making the square collapse. Now, if we put in a fifth piece, nailing it at two opposite corners, we find that no matter which way we put our weight on the square, we cannot cause it to collapse. This is because we have divided the square into two triangles by putting in the fifth piece form corner to corner. It is this simple principle carefully applied to building construction that prevents a building form losing its shape and gives it the structural strength to withstand high winds.

Examine the buildings on your farm at the first opportunity and, if you can see a number of triangles formed in the framing, you have little cause for alarm. If you see nothing but squares or oblongs, take warning now and put in enough braces to form triangles at every corner and in the roof, but first be sure the building stands straight and p0lumb so that you won’t tie it into a leaning position.

When you build that new building you are thinking of there are a number of details you will want to know so you can be sure of the safety of your building. Think of these often now, and then when you are actually building you will see the reason for every one.

After you have selected the site for the new building, consider the nature of the soil. Is it usually wet and soft or hard and dry? You may want to use a post foundation. If so, make an effort to get some creosoted posts and be sure not to cut into them below the ground line.

Tuesday, October 28, 2014

'Local and Personal' from Elizabeth City's Fisherman & Farmer Newspaper, October, 1901

"Local and Personal” from Fisherman & Farmer, Elizabeth City, October 3, 1901

The public school opens next Monday morning.

The oyster plant resumed operation last Monday.

Mr. George Dewey spent Monday in Edenton.

Mr. E.F. Aydlett is in Raleigh this week on business.

Mr. and Mrs. P. Delon have returned from a Northern tour.

Mr. George James has accepted a position as salesman with The Fair.

Mr. Jno. L. Sawyer left for Baltimore last Thursday on a business trip.

Mr. George Dewey has accepted a position as salesman with Love, Evans & Co.

Messrs Alex and George Sawyer of South Mills were visitors in the city Monday.

Mrs. Alaice Cartwright is on a visit to her daughter, Mrs. Jas. Scott at Moyock.

The Blades Lumber Company have shut down their mills while placing new machinery.

Miss Mary Markham of Olivet arrived in the city last week to enter Tillet’s Select School.

Mr. Hal Shaw of Shawboro has returned to the city and will resume his studies at A.C.I.

Mrs. P.W. McMullan has returned from Hertford where she has been on a visit to relatives.

Mr. Walter Bembury of Hertford arrived in the city Tuesday to accept a positon with Aydlett & Co.

Miss Elizabeth Bateman of Edenton is here on a visit to her aunt, Mrs. Mattie Leary on Church street.

Mrs. Sarah Jackson who has been quite ill at her home on Fearing street is improving, we are glad to state.

Mr. A.S. Archiball and Miss Bessie Meads, both of Portsmouth, were married here Monday, Rev. R.C. Beaman officiating.

Misses Addie Sivells and Sadie Wilcox have returned home after spending several days visiting relatives and friends at Moyock.

Mr. Clyde Crawford has resigned his position with The Fair and left yesterday to enter Roxboro High School at Roxboro.

Messrs Guy Brocket, George Fearing and Tom Forbs will leave Monday for Baltimore, where they will enter a business college.

Mr. Walter Sawyer left Thursday for Baltimore where he will enter the Junior class of the Medical Department of the University of Maryland.

Culpepper, Griffin, Old & Grice have moved into their new office on Main Street. They have one of the best equipped insurance offices in the State.

Box 137—Phone16—Residence 98 Roade Street. Stumble over any of these and you can get fixed on the Coal question for the coming pinchy weather.

Miss Byrde Kramer has accepted a position as book-keeper for J.R. Pinner. Miss Kramer is a graduate of the Southern Shorthand and Business College of Virginia.

Prof. Paul Spence of Elizabeth City, who was elected principal of the white graded schools of this city, has arrived and will this week enter upon his duties here. The prospects for a large and prosperous school are very promising.

The revenue cutter, Violet, is in port at this place.

Mr. Marshall Pool spent part of this week in South Mills.

Miss Mary Grice spent a short while in Norfolk last week.

French flannels for waists at reasonable prices at Fowler & Co’s.

The steamer C.W. Pettit is off the marine railway greatly improved.

The Naval Reserves were inspected Friday night by Inspector Hobgood.

Miss Lucy Turner, who has been on a visit to friends in Norfolk, has returned.

Messrs. Geo. Beveridge and Louis Balford spent part of this week in Camden on business.

Misses Wilmer and Effie Sawyer spent Sunday in South Mills, the guests of Mrs. B.B. James.

Prof. E.T. Burgess and Mr. Sam Squires of South Mills were in the City this week on business.

Mr. L.L. Winder returned Saturday afternoon spending some time in Baltimore on a business trip.

Mr. Arthur Burgess has resigned his position at Hill’s CafĂ© and accepted one with Fulmer & Whitehurst.

Mr. Eddie Whitehurst, who has been on a visit to friends in this City, has returned to his home in Norfolk.

Her many friends will be glad to learn that after several days confinement by sickness, Miss Patti Sanderlin is out again.

Mr. Joe Burgess left yesterday for Asheboro where he will enter Asheboro High School. We wish him a successful year.

Colonel Ryan, who has been in Hertford several days in the interest of his insurance company, has returned to the city.

Mr. Charlie Grice has resigned his position as book-keeper for Love, Evans & Co. and will leave Monday for Baltimore to accept a similar one. Mr. Luke Brothers has accepted the position resigned.

Mr. Clifton Sawyer and family leave to-day for their country home near Salem. Mr. Sawyer was formerly with Love, Evans & co. While here they have made a host of friends and all regret exceedingly to lose them.

Miss Etta F. Halstead of Henderson spent last week at this place visiting friends and relatives. She has returned to Elizabeth City, where she will spend quite awhile with her sister, Mrs. George Beveridge.

Miss M. Violet Brothers, who is in Washington, D.C., taking special course, has been offered an engagement for the entire season as Dramatic Reader, by the Manager of the “Star Concert Company,” which she has declined. Miss Brothers is quite a gifted young lady and we trust that the high purpose of her life will be fully attained by her. Her friends will commend her actin in refusing the unusually fine offer made her to enter a concert company. We feel assured that she will win greater success along other lines.

The editor is in Edenton this week attending court. Solicitor Ward is attending court at Edenton this week.

Mr. E.J. Shephard spent several days in Berkley on a visit to his son.

Miss Maggie Bell of Shawboro was a visitor in the city Wednesday.

Miss Maggie Hinton of Mumford is visiting relatives and friends in the city.

Mrs. G.W. Ward is at Manteo, recuperating after an extended attack of typhoid fever.

Mr. J.B. Ferebee has moved into his new tonsorial parlors in Flora Building on Main street.

Mr. R.B. Creecy Jr. has opened a night school in the Griggs old building on Road St.

Mr. J. Haywood Sawyer, one of our most able lawyers, is at Edenton this week attending court.

Mrs. Elizabeth Estelle Woodhouse of Oceana, Va., who has been on a visit to her parents, returned home Wednesday.

Miss Bessie Morgan, a charming and accomplished daughter of Mr. P.H. Morgan of Shawboro, was in the city Wednesday.

After spending some time in the city, the guest of Miss Connie White on Main street, Miss Adelaide White returned to her home in Hertford Monday.

The Union revival services now in progress at the First Baptist church grow daily in interest. The seating capacity of the largest auditorium in the city is inadequate to meet the great crowds that throng to hear the great Evangelist Geo. Stewart. This prophet of God is assisted by the great singer, Mr. Ramsey. We confidently trust that great good will result from this meeting.

Manteo Items
Mrs. W.J. Griffin spent a few days in Elizabeth City last week.

Miss George Harrison has accepted a school over on the banks.

Mrs. B.H. Creef has gone to Baltimore for her fall and winter stock of millinery.

Messrs Creef are building a nice new schooner which they intend using as a freight boat on this route.

Mrs. R.W. Smith and children have returned from Virginia Beach, where she has been visiting her sister, Mrs. Nelson Holmes.

Mrs. G.W. Ward of Elizabeth City is stopping at the Tranquil House for a few days recuperating. We hope that our sea breezes will be beneficial.

Rev. R.A. Willis preached at Wanchese on Sunday morning and at Manteo at night, but owing to the inclement weather, only a few were out to the night services.

The many friends of Mr. O.C. Lillybridge will regret to hear of his death, which occurred Friday, the 20th, at his home in Baltimore, caused by heart trouble and asthma.

South Mills Items
Mr. Geo. H. Jacobs is on the sick list.

Last Sunday being the fifth Sunday there were not any services in any of the churches.

Mrs. C.W. Sawyer of Deep Creek, Va., is visiting her parents and friends at this place.

The many friends of Mr. and Mrs. J.F. Foster regret to learn of the illness of their little child.

A sneak thief entered the barn of Mr. Henry Williams last Saturday night and relieved him of a bale of hay.

Mrs. J.G. McCoy, Mrs. John Culpepper, Miss Sallie Culpepper, Miss Laurel Hollowell and Miss Laura Deal, all of Deep Creek, were the guests of Mrs. W.E. McCoy last Monday.

Monday, October 27, 2014

What Hendersonville Area Teachers Earned in Past Three Months, October, 1918

“Quarterly School Report” from the French Broad Hustler, Hendersonville, Thursday, Oct. 24, 1918. Note that teachers’ salaries were for a quarter—three months—and that you need to divide the district total by the number of teachers at the school if you want to know what a teacher was making. The superintendent of schools was paid $100 a month. “Colored” schools are at the end of the article. “Colored” was a common term in 1918; “Black” was considered an insult and “African American” was reserved for people who were born in Africa. Also the newspaper really did print the teachers’ salary for District 5, Green River Township, as $1,200, but it’s so much larger than any other township. Maybe it’s a typographical error.

Disbursements of school funds for the quarter ending Sept. 30, 1918.

Blue Ridge Township
Dist. No. 1, Teachers salary, $90.00

Dist. 2, Teachers salary, $35.00

Dist. 3, Mrs. J.C. Byers, supplies, $2.95

Dist. 4, Teachers salary, $70.00

Dist. 4, M.M. Burgess, work on well, $4.95, and census, $2.40, (total) $7.35

Dist. 6, Teachers salary, $40.00

Dist. 7, Teachers salary, $35.00

Dist. 7, A.P. Case, taking school census, $1.95

Dist. 8, Teachers salary, $90.00

Clear Creek Township
Dist. 1, Teachers salary, $105.00

Dist. 1, Ed Pinner, work on school house, $64.35
Dist. 1, Fidelia Lyda, school census, $5.34

Crab Creek Township
Dist. 1, Teachers salary, $30.00

Dist. 2, Teachers salary, $80.00

Dist. 2, Gladys Hamilton, supplies, $4.00

Dist. 3, Teachers salary, $35.00

Dist. 4, J.B. Patterson, floor oil, $4.50

Dist. 4, S.C. Huggins, school census, $3.18

Dist. 4, H.L.F. Drake, supplies, $3.80

Dist. 5, Teachers salary, $35.00

Dist. 5, J.T. Jones, supplies, $3.75

Edneyville Township
Dist. 2, Teachers salary, $35.00

Dist. 2, Wilkie Pryor, school census, $1.47

Dist. 3, Eva Merrell, school census, $4.29

Dist. 3, J.B. Merrell, repairs, $12.30

Dist. 3, Grace Dell James, crayon, $.40

Dist. 4, Ernest Jackson, school census, $2.58

Dist. 5, Teachers salary, $30.00

Dist. 6, Teachers salary, $40.00

Dist. 7, Teachers salary, $55.00

Dist. 8, Teachers salary, $40.00

Dist. 8, Ernest Oates, school census, $1.29

Green River Township
Dist. 1, Teachers salary, $70.00

Dist. 3, Teachers salary, $35.00

Dist. 3, T.E. Morgan, election fees, $3.00

Dist. 3, Green River Mfg., co. supplies, $3.70

Dist. 5, Teachers salary, $1,200.00

Dist. 6, Teachers salary, $70

Dist. 7, Teachers salary, $170.00

Dist. 7, A.W. Russell, school census, $3.06

Dist. 7, Nannie Brock, supplies, 4.40

Hendersonville Township
Dist. 1, Teachers salary, $70.00

Dist. 2, Teachers salary, $125.00

Dist. 2, R.F. Hunnicutt, repairs, $12.20

Dist. 2, N.A. Drake, school census, $4.50

Dist. 2, Bland Hardware Co., repairs, $20.09

Dist. 2, H.A. Capps, repairs, $13.10

Dist. 3, Teachers salary, $200.00

Dist. 3, J.J. Slattry, school census, $5.97

Dist. 3 E., Teachers salary, $225.00

Dist. 3, E., P.H. Walker, fuel, $100.00

Dist. 4, W.D. Rymer, school census, $1.86

Dist. 5, Teachers salary, $60.00

Dist. 6, W.W. Wilfong, school census, $2.37

Dist. 7, Teachers salary, $80.00

Dist. 7, T.W. Anderson, work on well, $48.18

Dist. 8, T.C. Israel, note on piano, $36.00

Dist. 8, T.C. Israel, school census, $4.35

Dist. 9, Teachers salary, $110.00

Dist. 9, Globe Book Co. for desks, $28.00

Dist. 10, Teachers salary, $50.00

Dist. 10, Frances Jackson, supplies, $12.30

Hooper’s Creek Township
Dist. 1, Teachers salary, $67.50

Dist. 2, Teachers salary, $175.00

Dist. 3, Teachers salary, $35.00

Dist. 4, Teachers salary, $90.00

Dist. 4, H.S. Israel, work on well, $4.00

Dist. 4, J.F. Livingston, school census, $2.52

Mills River Township
Dist. 1, Teachers salary, $60.00

Dist. 1, J.H. Laughter, work on well, $25.27

Dist. 2, Teachers salary, [can’t read]

Dist. 3, Teachers salary, [can’t read]

Dist. 4, Teachers salary, $230.00

Dist. 4, B. Robinson, school census, $5.73

Dist. 5, Teachers salary, $75.00

Dist. 6, Teachers salary, $70.00

Dist. 7, C.G. Fields, school census, $1.65

Clear Creek Township
Dist. 1, Colored Teachers salary, $50.00

Edneyville Township
Dist. 1, Colored Teachers salary, $27.50

Hendersonville Township
Dist. 0, Colored, W.M. Robinson, school census, $3.06

Dist. 1, Colored Teachers salary, $45.00

Dist. 1, Colored, B.M. Swepson, school census, $2.23

Dist. 2, Colored Teachers salary, $80.00

Dist. 2, Colored, B.M. Swepson, school census, $1.56

Dist. 2, Colored, B.M. Swepson, supplies, $3.80

Dist. 3, Colored Teachers salary, $30.00

Hooper’s Creek Township
Dist. 1, Colored Teachers salary, $90.00

Dist. 1, Colored, Alfred Clayton, school census, $1.36

Dist. 1, Colored, M.L. Whitley, supplies and fuel, $5.35

Administration Account
Building Fund, $132.48

Superintendent’s Salary, $300.00

Expense of Office, $47.00

Home Demonstration Work, $41.67

J.C. Sales, $3.80

J.O. Bell, $7.60

J.W. Morgan, $7.80

                                J.C. Sages (?), Chairman
                                W.S. Shitle, Secretary

Sunday, October 26, 2014

Farm Women's Hard Work Pays Off, 1936

“Farm Women Capitalize Skill in Cookery” by Jane S. McKimmon, Extension Home Demonstration Leader, N.C. State College, from the October, 1936, issue of the Carolina Co-operator.

Twenty per cent of sales made on the farm women’s markets of North Carolina are from homemade cakes and the sum total realized from these sales in 1935 was $46,786. Certain women stand out as cake makers and have captured much of the town patronage.

Cakes have a real individuality which is easily recognized by the buyers. They may all be made of the same recipe but each artist gives her own particular touch to her products which makes it stand out from the crowd and brings the well-pleased customer to her again and again.

An agricultural economist once asked me why it was that women buyers seemed to pass up the standardized Western hams in a grocery store and select the far less attractive looking home cured ones. My explanation was that all good housekeepers preferred a ham cured by a well tried formula which means good seasoning and that particular gastronomic touch which some people know how to give. There is a recognized standard of excellence in much of our home cured meat but individuality is just as desirable in the finished product as in the expression of any other type of art which we see arund us.

Mrs. Jodie Shipp of Durham County tells something of the work entailed in marketing her products.

“To sell on the Curb market,” she said, “is not the easiest job in the world and it makes Friday the busiest day of all the week. The vegetables have to be gathered, graded, and cleaned. Chickens must be dressed, butter moulded, and cakes and bread baked.

“That means rising about 3:00 a.m. on Saturday morning, cooking breakfast and lunch all at one time, washing dishes, making beds, hurriedly packing the market produce, and gathering flowers and perishable vegetables and fruits in order that the customer may receive them fresh with morning dew.

“The farm woman rushes to the market building and spends one-half hour setting up her table of produce, weighs her chickens, pins the price and the seller’s name on them, and weighs or measures her vegetables.

“Then she’s ready for the buyers, and for the next three hours a steady stream of customers pours into the market building in Durham and each farm woman tries to be the most tactful and most attractive seller there that she may sell her produce.

“By 11 or 12 o’clock the marketer returns to her home, tired and worn out, but with a very happy feeling that she has done her best in providing funds for better living conditions in her home.

“The fact that the Durham Home Demonstration Curb Market in five years has climbed from the bottom to the second highest round of the ladder is something of which every curb market seller and customer is justly proud. The total sales for 1935 in Durham amounted to $27,000.”

Fall Fashion Notes, 1936

“Fall Fashion Notes from Evelyn Tobey,” from the October, 1936, issue of the Carolina Co-operator. And, yes, the article did refer to the shortiness of skirts.

Wear shortish skirts and make the degree of shortiness depend on the circumference of your hips and your ankles.

Wear one-inch heels for sports and two-inch for street dress. For evening wear a heel-less to a spike-heel slipper according to your costume.

Get into your dresses up to our neck this fall, they are going to wear chokers.

Have a jacket for every dress and have it short as is becoming to your style of beauty.

Wear your gloves every time you step outside your door.

Wear your corset in the house as well as the street, if you die for it. Better die in good form.

Don’t wear a bouquet unless it is just the thing in just that spot on your costume.

Make up to bring out your own beauty but be artful about it.

For hair arrangement expose some if not all of your ears, for as collars and bust lines went up, so did the hair No ear muffs this winter.

Plucked eyebrows have gone out of style. Perhaps if one had the shaggy overhanging eyebrows of Vice-President Garner, they might wish to do a little plucking but after all do not those same shaggy brows give him his interesting individuality in appearance?

Saturday, October 25, 2014

Community News from Hendersonville Area, 1918

“People and Events” from the French Broad Hustler, Hendersonville, Thursday, Oct. 24, 1918. Keep in mind that this was written during the Spanish Flu Pandemic and World War I.

Dr. Guy E. Dixon has been confined to his home this week with illness.

Mrs. C.M. Pace has been quite sick but is recovering.

Miss Kate Dotson is out again after being confined to her home for a few days with a mild attack of influenza.

Mrs. T.M. McCullough and four children have been suffering with influenza for the past 10 days.

Mrs. Bessie Egerton has gone to Denver, Colorado, to be with her son, Thomas, who is very ill.

Miss Birdie West was called to Knoxville, Tenn., last Friday on account of illness of her sister.

Henry Green, who is a student at the Agricultural and Electrical college [N.C. State University], has been ill with influenza.

The families of V.E. Grant and Frank Israel are suffering from influenza.

Sam T. Hodges arrived last Thursday for a visit to his family.

Miss Jennie Bowen of Asheville is the guest of Mrs. H.A. Stepp for a few days.

M.L. Shipman, state commissioner of labor and printing, of Raleigh, was in the city this week.

Mrs. H.W. Hawkins has returned from an extended visit to Charlotte, N.C., and Savannah, Ga.

Dr. Erskine Ehringhaus was kept at home several days last week on account of rheumatism.

Mr. and Mrs. F.R. Houston on Oakland Street are recovering from a recent attack of influenza.

T.M. McCullough, who has been confined to his bed for about six months, continues in a poor state of health.

Clarence Moore of Spartanburg, S.C., has been visiting Harry McCall of this city for a few days.

An enjoyable party of young people was held on Stoney Mountain last Friday afternoon and night.

M.M. Shepherd Jr. has returned from A.&.E. college, West Raleigh, where he suffered a severe case of influenza.

Mrs. R.H. Holmes of Atlanta is in the city this week, being called here on account of the death of her father, L.T. Williams.

Mr. and Mrs. S.J. Justice were called to Lowden, Tenn., last week on account of the illness of Mrs. J.D. Roberson, who is a sister of Mrs. Justice.

Dr. and Mrs. E.E. Bomar have returned from Tryon, where they attended the wedding of Mrs. Bomar’s niece, Miss Hallie Hester. [Dr. Bomar was a minister, not a physician.]

Miss Lola Shipman, recently of Greenville, is in the city. She came to attend the funeral and burial of her brother, T. Few Shipman.

Reese Pope, who has a position with Burckmyer Bros., has been kept at home recently with an attack of influenza.

Prof. G.P. Heilig, principal of one of the Charlotte graded schools and proprietor of the Vista Theatre of Henderson, is in the city on business this week.

Miss Kate Allen, who spent the summer with her brother, John Allen at Mills River, has come to spend some time with her brother, T.B. Allen.

Mrs. Charles R. Whitaker, who was called to Washington, D.C., on account of the illness of her daughter and son-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Perkins, has returned home.

Miss Carrie McCall, who spent the summer with her parents in Hendersonville, has returned to Jacksonville, Fla.

Dr. M.P. Mallett is in Perthamboy, N.J., assisting in the care of the sick and wounded caused by the explosion of a shrapnel factory a few weeks ago.

Sergeant Frank Dunlap, who has been away from this section for 19 years, is visiting his sisters, Mrs. H.A. Stepp and Mrs. C.C. McCall. Sgt. Dunlap is amber of the Marine Corps and is stationed at New London, Conn.

Mrs. A.M. Gover and daughter, Mrs. Thomas Egerton, left last Saturday for Denver, Col., in response to a message stating the serious illness of Thomas Egerton, who went to Denver a few weeks ago to recuperate.

M.E. Holtzclaw was in the city this week from Paris Island, S.C. He is seeing carpenters for the government operations there. Mr. Holtzclaw’s son, Harry, is engaged in carpentry at Paris Island.

Borne to Mr. and Mrs. E.J. Pence of Brunswick, Ga., on October 17, a daughter, June Elizabeth. They are present with Mrs. Pence’s parents, Mr. and Mrs. J.O. Johnson on Church St., Hendersonville.

Walter Orr, who has been in the naval service for some time, was home last week on a visit to his parents. Since his last visit home, Walter crossed the Atlantic twice and put his feet on French soil. He is seeing service on a merchant ship.

Miss Airs Eugs Geyer of Asheville and Ensign James M. Ripley, U.S.N., were married in Asheville yesterday afternoon at 5 o’clock. Dr. R.F. Campbell, pastor of the First Presbyterian church, performed the ceremony. Miss Geyer, who is the daughter of Mrs. Leon St. John of Ravenscroft drive, is widely known as one of the most popular young women in Asheville. She is a talented musician and studied music the past two winters in New York. Ensign Ripley is a son of J.H. Ripley of Hendersonville. He reports for duty in New York on Monday and for the present Mrs. Ripley will make her home on Ravenscroft drive. The marriage of these popular young people is a matter of much interest to many friends in Western North Carolina.

E.O. Foster Farm, Caswell County, 1940

Photos from the Library of Congress taken October, 1940, on the Caswell County farm of E.O. Foster.
E.O. Foster, stripping and grading his tobacco.
The E.O. Foster farm,  Caswell County, Oct. 1940
Foster's display at the Caswell County Fair. "Live at Home" was a program that encouraged self-sufficiency in family farms, so that families didn't need to spend their limited cash at stores buying what they could have raised at home.
Shocked corn at the Foster farm.
E.O. Foster's son delivering empty milk bottles back to the dairy.

Friday, October 24, 2014

How North Carolina Women Got the Vote, 1920

To learn how women gained the right to vote in North Carolina, see The photo is from the North Carolina State Archives. Learn NC is offered by the UNC School of Education.

Who Could Register and Vote in North Carolina in 1918?

“Law as to Qualifications of Registrants and Voters,” from the French Broad Hustler, Hendersonville, Thursday, Oct. 24, 1918. Of course, women couldn't vote. The amendment to the constitution that gave women the right to vote wasn't ratified until 1920. And the North Carolina State didn't vote in favor of women's suffrage until 1971, although women were allowed to vote before then because the federal government gave them that right.

Must be 21 years old. Resident of State two years. (Residence of a married man is where his family resides, and that of a single man where he sleeps.) Resident of county six months, ward or precinct four months, on November 5th. (In other words, where you resided on July 5, 1918, will determine where you should be registered and place of voting November 5th. If you have moved since July 5, 1918, you can register and vote in the ward or precinct from which you came.) All voters becoming 21 years of age after the books close, which is October 26th, at sundown, can register on Election Day at voting place.

When a Nation Was at War, the Public Made Sacrifices, 1918

“Food Man Issues New Food Rules” from the French Broad Hustler, Hendersonville, Thursday, Oct. 24, 1918. Can you imagine the outcry today if people were asked to give up a slice of bacon to support the troops?

The serving of any bread is prohibited that does not contain at least 20 per cent substitutes, and not more than 2 ounces to the person at each meal. Four ounces of corn bread, muffins, etc., may be served. No bread or toast may be served as a garniture.

Bacon is prohibited as a garniture.

Only one meat may be served to a patron at a time. Included in the definition of meat are beef, mutton, pork and poultry. Not more than a half ounce of butter is to be served to one person at a meal, and American cheese is limited to the same amount.

No sugar bowls will be permitted on tables.

One teaspoonful is the limit for a meal, and then only when asked for. Two pounds is the allowance to be observed for each 90 meals served, including cooking.

No waste food may be burned, but must be saved to feed animals.

The Food Administration relies on your hearty co-operation and observance of these regulations voluntarily, but is prepared to use the full force of its power against the few persons who would interfere with the success of its plans.

       --Yours very truly, W. Marshal Bridges, Food Administrator, Henderson County, Oct. 18, 1918


Thursday, October 23, 2014

Pres. Franklin Roosevelt's Fireside Chat, Oct. 12, 1942

If you want to know what a president said about something, not just what someone else said he said, and not out of context, try the American Presidency Project ( The project was established in 1999 as a collaboration between John T. Woolley & Gerhard Peters at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The archives contain 107,786 documents related to the study of the Presidency. Below is the text of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Fireside Chat, delivered Oct. 12, 1942, from the American Presidency Project.

 My Fellow Americans:
As you know, I have recently come back from a trip of inspection of camps and training stations and war factories.

The main thing that I observed on this trip is not exactly news. It is the plain fact that the American people are united as never before in their determination to do a job and to do it well. This whole Nation of 130,000,000 free men, women, and children is becoming one great fighting force. Some of us are soldiers or sailors, some of us are civilians. Some of us are fighting the war in airplanes five miles above the continent of Europe or the islands of the Pacific—and some of us are fighting it in mines deep down in the earth of Pennsylvania or Montana. A few of us are decorated with medals for heroic achievement, but all of us can have that deep and permanent inner satisfaction that comes from doing the best we know how—each of us playing an honorable part in the great struggle to save our democratic civilization.

Whatever our individual circumstances or opportunities—we are all in it, and our spirit is good, and we Americans and our allies are going to win—and do not let anyone tell you anything different. That is the main thing that I saw on my trip around the country-unbeatable spirit. If the leaders of Germany and Japan could have come along with me, and had seen what I saw, they would agree with my conclusions. Unfortunately, they were unable to make the trip with me. And that is one reason why we are carrying our war effort overseas—to them.

With every passing week the war increases in scope and intensity. That is true in Europe, in Africa, in Asia, and on all the seas. The strength of the United Nations is on the upgrade in this war. The Axis leaders, on the other hand, know by now that they have already reached their full strength, and that their steadily mounting losses in men and material cannot be fully replaced. Germany and Japan are already realizing what the inevitable result will be when the total strength of the United Nations hits them—at additional places on the earth's surface. One of the principal weapons of our enemies in the past has been their use of what is called the "War of Nerves." They have spread falsehood and terror; they have started fifth columns everywhere; they have duped the innocent; they have fomented suspicion and hate between neighbors; they have aided and abetted those people in other Nations--including our own-whose words and deeds are advertised from Berlin and Tokyo as proof of our disunity.

The greatest defense against all such propaganda, of course, is the common sense of the common people--and that defense is prevailing.

The "War of Nerves" against the United Nations is now turning into a boomerang. For the first time, the Nazi propaganda machine is on the defensive. They begin to apologize to their own people for the repulse of their vast forces at Stalingrad, and for the enormous casualties they are suffering. They are compelled to beg their overworked people to rally their weakened production. They even publicly admit, for the first time, that Germany can be fed only at the cost of stealing food from the rest of Europe.

They are proclaiming that a second front is impossible; but, at the same time, they are desperately rushing troops in all directions, and stringing barbed wire all the way from the coasts of Finland and Norway to the islands of the eastern Mediterranean.

Meanwhile, they are driven to increase the fury of their atrocities.

The United Nations have decided to establish the identity of those Nazi leaders who are responsible for the innumerable acts of Savagery. As each of these criminal deeds is committed, it is being carefully investigated; and the evidence is being relentlessly piled up for the future purposes of justice.

We have made it entirely clear that the United Nations seek no mass reprisals against the populations of Germany or Italy or Japan. But the ringleaders and their brutal henchmen must be named, and apprehended, and tried in accordance with the judicial processes of criminal law.

There are now millions of Americans in army camps, in naval stations, in factories, and in shipyards.

Who are these millions upon whom the life of our country depends? What are they thinking? What are their doubts? What are their hopes? And how is the work progressing?

The Commander in Chief cannot learn all of the answers to these questions in Washington. And that is why I made the trip I did.

It is very easy to say, as some have said, that when the President travels through the country he should go with a blare of trumpets, with crowds on the sidewalks, with batteries of reporters and photographers—talking and posing with all of the politicians of the land.

But having had some experience in this war and in the last war, I can tell you very simply that the kind of trip I took permitted me to concentrate on the work I had to do without expending time, meeting all the demands of publicity. And—I might add—it was a particular pleasure to make a tour of the country without having to give a single thought to politics.

I expect to make other trips for similar purposes, and I shall make them in the same way.

In the last war, I had seen great factories; but until I saw some of the new present-day plants, I had not thoroughly visualized our American war effort. Of course, I saw only a small portion of all our plants, but that portion was a good cross section, and it was deeply impressive.
The United States has been at war for only ten months, and is engaged in the enormous task of multiplying its armed forces many times. We are by no means at full production level yet. But I could not help asking myself on the trip, where would we be today if the Government of the United States had not begun to build many of its factories for this huge increase more than two years ago—more than a year before war was forced upon us at Pearl Harbor.

We have also had to face the problem of shipping. Ships in every part of the world continue to be sunk by enemy action. But the total tonnage of ships coming out of American, Canadian, and British shipyards, day by day, has increased so fast that we are getting ahead of our enemies in the bitter battle of transportation.

In expanding our shipping, we have had to enlist many thousands of men for our merchant marine. These men are serving magnificently. They are risking their lives every hour so that guns and tanks and planes and ammunition and food may be carried to the heroic defenders of Stalingrad and to all the United Nations' forces all over the world.

A few days ago I awarded the first Maritime Distinguished Service Medal to a young man- Edward F. Cheney of Yeadon, Pennsylvania—who had shown great gallantry in rescuing his comrades from the oily waters of the sea after their ship had been torpedoed. There will be many more such acts of bravery. In one sense my recent trip was a hurried one, out through the Middle West, to the Northwest, down the length of the Pacific coast, and back through the Southwest and the South. In another sense, however, it was a leisurely trip, because I had the opportunity to talk to the people who are actually doing the work—management and labor alike—on their own home grounds. And it gave me a fine chance to do some thinking about the major problems of our war effort on the basis of first things first.

As I told the three press association representatives who accompanied me, I was impressed by the large proportion of women employed—doing skilled manual labor running machines. As time goes on, and many more of our men enter the armed forces, this proportion of women will increase. Within less than a year from now there will probably be as many women as men working in our war production plants.

I had some enlightening experiences relating to the old saying of us men that curiosity—inquisitiveness—is stronger among women. I noticed, frequently, that when we drove unannounced down the middle aisle of a great plant full of workers and machines, the first people to look up from their work were the men—and not the women. It was chiefly the men who were arguing as to whether that fellow in the straw hat was really the President' or not.

So having seen the quality of the work and of the workers on our production lines—and coupling these firsthand observations with the reports of actual performance of our weapons on the fighting fronts—I can say to you that we are getting ahead of our enemies in the battle of production.

And of great importance to our future production was the effective and rapid manner in which the Congress met the serious problem of the rising cost of living. It was a splendid example of the operation of democratic processes in wartime.

The machinery to carry out this act of the Congress was put into effect within twelve hours after the bill was signed. The legislation will help the cost-of-living problems of every worker in every factory and on every farm in the land.

In order to keep stepping up our production, we have had to add millions of workers to the total labor force of the Nation. And as' new factories come into operation, we must find additional millions of workers.

This presents a formidable problem in the mobilization of manpower.

It is not that we do not have enough people in this country to do the job. The problem is to have the right numbers of the right people in the right places at the right time.

We are learning to ration materials; and we must now learn to ration manpower.
The major objectives of a sound manpower policy are:

First, to select and train men of the highest fighting efficiency needed for our armed forces in the achievement of victory over our enemies in combat.

Second, to man our war industries and farms with the workers needed to produce the arms and munitions and food required by ourselves and by our fighting allies to win this war.

In order to do this, we shall be compelled to stop workers from moving from one war job to another as a matter of personal preference; to stop employers from stealing labor from each other; to use older men, and handicapped people, and more women, and even grown boys and girls, wherever possible and reasonable, to replace men of military age and fitness; to train new personnel for essential war work; and to stop the wastage of labor in all non-essential activities.

There are many other things that we can do, and do immediately, to help meet this manpower problem.

The school authorities in all the States should work out plans to enable our high school students to take some time from their school year, and to use their summer vacations, to help farmers raise and harvest their crops, or to work somewhere in the war industries. This does not mean closing schools and stopping education. It does mean giving older students a better opportunity to contribute their bit to the war effort. Such work will do no harm to the students.

People should do their work as near their homes as possible. We cannot afford to transport a single worker into an area where there is already a worker available to do the job.

In some communities, employers dislike to employ women. In others they are reluctant to hire Negroes. In still others, older men are not wanted. We can no longer afford to indulge such prejudices or practices.

Every citizen wants to know what essential war work he can do the best. He can get the answer by applying to the nearest United States Employment Service office. There are 4,500 of these offices throughout the Nation. They form the corner grocery stores of our manpower system. This network of employment offices is prepared to advise every citizen where his skills and labors are needed most, and to refer him to an employer who can utilize them to best advantage in the war effort.

Perhaps the most difficult phase of the manpower problem is the scarcity of farm labor in many places. I have seen evidences of the fact, however, that the people are trying to meet it as well as possible.

In one community that I visited, a perishable crop was harvested by turning out the whole of the high school for three or four days.

And in another community of fruit growers the usual Japanese labor was not available; but when the fruit ripened, the banker, the butcher, the lawyer, the garage man, the druggist, the local editor, and in fact every able-bodied man and woman in the town, left their occupations, and went out, gathered the fruit, and sent it to market.

Every farmer in the land must realize fully that his production is part of war production, and that he is regarded by the Nation as essential to victory. The American people expect him to keep his production up, and even to increase it. We will use every effort to help him to get labor; but, at the same time, he and the people of his community must use ingenuity and cooperative effort to produce crops, and livestock and dairy products.

It may be that all of our volunteer effort—however well intentioned and well administered—will not suffice wholly to solve this problem. In that case, we shall have to adopt new legislation. And if this is necessary, I do not believe that the American people will shrink from it.

In a sense, every American, because of the privilege of his citizenship, is a part of the Selective Service.

The Nation owes a debt of gratitude to the Selective Service boards. The successful operation of the Selective Service System and the way it has been accepted by the great mass of our citizens give us confidence that, if necessary, the same principle could be used to solve any manpower problem.

And I want to say also a word of praise and thanks to the more than 10,000,000 people, all over the country, who have volunteered for the work of civilian defense- and who are working hard at it. They are displaying unselfish devotion in the patient performance of their often tiresome and always anonymous tasks. In doing this important neighborly work they are helping to fortify our national unity and our real understanding of the fact that we are all involved in this war.

Naturally, on my trip I was most interested in watching the training of our fighting forces.

All of our combat units that go overseas must consist of young, strong men who have had thorough training. An Army Division that has an average age of 23 or 24 is a better fighting unit than one which has an average age of 33 or 34. The more of such troops we have in the field, the sooner the war will be won, and the smaller will be the cost in casualties.

Therefore, I believe that it will be necessary to lower the present minimum age limit for Selective Service from twenty years down to eighteen. We have learned how inevitable that is and how important to the speeding up of victory.

I can very thoroughly understand the feelings of all parents whose sons have entered our armed forces. I have an appreciation of that feeling—and so has my wife.

I want every father and every mother who has a son in the service to know—again, from what I have seen with my own eyes—that the men in the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps are receiving today the best possible training, equipment, and medical care. And we will never fail to provide for the spiritual needs of our officers and men under the Chaplains of our armed services.

Good training will save many, many lives in battle. The highest rate of casualties is always suffered by units comprised of inadequately trained men.

We can be sure that the combat units of our Army and Navy are well manned, well equipped, and well trained. Their effectiveness in action will depend upon the quality of their leadership, and upon the wisdom of the strategic plans on which all military operations are based.

I can say one thing about these plans of ours: They are not being decided by the typewriter strategists who expound their views in the press or on the radio.

One of the greatest of American soldiers, Robert E. Lee, once remarked on the tragic fact that in the war of his day all of the best generals were apparently working on newspapers instead of in the Army. And that seems to be true in all wars.

The trouble with the typewriter strategists is that, while they may be full of bright ideas, they are not in possession of much information about the facts or problems of military operations.

We, therefore, will continue to leave the plans for this war to the military leaders.

The military and naval plans of the United States are made by the Joint Staff of the Army and Navy which is constantly in session in Washington. The Chiefs of this Staff are Admiral Leahy, General Marshall, Admiral King, and General Arnold. They meet and confer regularly with representatives of the British Joint Staff, and with representatives of Russia, China, The Netherlands, Poland, Norway, the British Dominions and other Nations working in the common cause.

Since this unity of operations was put into effect last January, there has been a very substantial agreement among these planners, all of whom are trained in the profession of arms—air, sea, and land—from their early years. As Commander in Chief I have at all times also been in substantial agreement.

As I have said before, many major decisions of strategy have been made. One of them—on which we have all agreed—relates to the necessity of diverting enemy forces from Russia and China to other theaters of war by new offensives against Germany and Japan. An announcement of how these offensives are to be launched, and when, and where, cannot be broadcast over the radio at this time.

We are celebrating today the exploit of a bold and adventurous Italian—Christopher Columbus—who with the aid of Spain opened up a new world where freedom and tolerance and respect for human rights and dignity provided an asylum for the oppressed of the Old World.

Today, the sons of the New World are fighting in lands far distant from their own America. They are fighting to save for all mankind, including ourselves, the principles which have flourished in this New World of freedom.

We are mindful of the countless millions of people whose future liberty and whose very lives depend upon permanent victory for the United Nations.

There are a few people in this country who, when the collapse of the Axis begins, will tell our people that we are safe once more; that we can tell the rest of the world to "stew in its own juice"; that never again will we help to pull "the other fellow's chestnuts from the fire"; that the future of civilization can jolly well take care of itself insofar as we are concerned.

But it is useless to win battles if the cause for which we fight these battles is lost. It is useless to win a war unless it stays won.

We, therefore, fight for the restoration and perpetuation of faith and hope and peace throughout the world.

The objective of today is clear and realistic. It is to destroy completely the military power of Germany, Italy, and Japan to such good purpose that their threat against us and all the other United Nations cannot be revived a generation hence. We are united in seeking the kind of victory that will guarantee that our grandchildren can grow and, under God, may live their lives, free from the constant threat of invasion, destruction, slavery, and violent death.

Wednesday, October 22, 2014

Dip May End Quarantine for Cattle Tick Fever in Pasquotank County, 1920

Elizabeth City Independent, Oct. 8, 1920

As a result of effective dipping and co-operation on the part of progressive citizens, Pasquotank County will be released from cattle quarantine on December 1. This has been made possible by concerted action on the part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the State Board of Agriculture and the Board of Commissioners of Pasquotank.

At the regular meeting of the Commissioners, held last Monday an agreement was entered into by means of which the release from quarantine will be formally carried out. This agreement, which was signed by the board, contains the following provisions:

1.       That the commissioners agree to maintain inspection of the quarantined cattle and premises in Pasquotank County, to be released from State and Federal quarantine, until all cattle and premises have been found to be free of the cattle fever tick.

2.       Provided, that the State Veterinarian, the State Board of Agriculture and the U.S. Bureau of Animal Industry continue to effectively cooperate in a way to enforce disinfection of cattle and premises until work of eradicating cattle ticks, on the remaining premises is completed.

3.       In view of the above, the Commissioners of Pasquotank do hereby petition the State Veterinarian, the State Board of Agriculture and the Chief to the Bureau of Animal Industry to release this county from state and federal quarantine on account of the Texas fever tick.

This action on the part of the Commissioners is generally regarded with approval and is the source of considerable satisfaction to many business men and farmers throughout the county who have been supporting tick eradication work. Pasquotank is the first county in this immediate section to be released from quarantine. It is expected that several others will be released next year.

With some few exceptions, the dipping of cattle throughout the county has been carried out very satisfactorily. In spite of opposition, the work has proceeded steadily. The release from quarantine marks its successful culmination.