Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Farming Cooperatives Promoted, 1956

From the July 1956 issue of Extension Farm-News

Approximately 2,300 persons from all over the United States, Puerto Rico, Chili, Peru, and Canada flocked to the North Carolina State College campus for the 28th annual meeting of the American Institute of Cooperation. The four-day institute ended Thursday, August 2.

North Carolina’s Governor, Luther Hodges, and Frank Graham, United Nations representative for India and Pakistan, addressed the opening session and saw in “cooperation” the solution to some current ills, farm and otherwise.

Calling cooperation a part of the “natural, biological, economic, and social process,” Graham appealed for “the cooperation of wisdom and good faith for support of basic principles of the American way of life.”

Hodges urged state agricultural agencies and institutions to take the initiative in providing cooperative marketing services for farmers. Citing instances where the farmer’s independent spirit had placed him at a handicap in the market place, he pointed out that “In a state with so many farmers, many have joined together to do a better job of marketing, purchasing supplies, and providing needed services….”

“It is a fact,” Hodges said, “that in many cases, the marketing facilities and other services were not available until the farmers formed their own associations to do the job.” He called cooperation “the hope of survival.”

On the opening day, President Eisenhower sent his personal greetings to A.I.C. president J.K. Stern in which he said, “Farmer cooperatives are shining examples of the self-help pioneering spirit that has made this nation great. The hope for improving the economic situation of most farmers lies in strengthening their organizations so as to be more effective in the market place….”

Representatives of 19 of the nation’s top FFA chapters and 4-H Club members from 28 states were recognized at the first evening assembly.

At a research and education meeting several agricultural and cooperative leaders called for expanded research programs in Land-Grant colleges to determine the best procedures in cooperative purchasing and marketing.

A.I.C. President J.K. Stern accued “too many present-day leaders” of self-satisfaction. “they forget that when they built these organizations and inspired their neighbors to work together, they were younger men. We need the enthusiasm of youth, combined with the wisdom of age, in today’s cooperatives.”

A post institute feature was the extension workshop. This brought together 60 state extension leaders who discussed cooperative ills and advantages and their own state programs of aid to cooperatives.

Monday, July 30, 2012

Modernizing Poultry Processing In Chatham County, 1945

By F.H. Jeter, Extension Editor, N.C. State College, Raleigh, as published in the Wilmington Star, June 23, 1945

Just outside of Siler City, in Chatham County, is a modern brick structure which is a monument to the faith of Chatham County farmers in the future of poultry.

This modern brick structure is a poultry processing plant, 60 by 170 feet in size, with additional sheds covering the boiler rooms, the carpenter shop, and other auxiliary needs. Poultry farmers and truckers bring in their poultry at the upper end of the plant, the birds are removed from the coops, their feet placed in wire holders which run on a continuous chain belt, and, when the birds emerge at the other end, they have been dressed and are ready to be placed in the ice cold vats which await them.

Broilers, hens, roosters, all, are handled by this modern assembly line method—a product of American ingenuity. The birds are killed as they pass one operator, then they are dipped into boiling water, and pass through this into an automatic machine which strips them almost clean of feathers. Those features that remain are removed as the birds pass through another machine equipped with rotary rubber fingers which are almost human in their ability to remove the last clinking feather.

Should any be left, women operators along the line clean the last pin feather and in normal times, the birds are then dressed for the table with each operator doing one particular job. The plant is now processing poultry for the War Shipping Administration which has first call on all the poultry in the 10-county area in which Chatham is included and the birds are simply cleaned of their feathers and packed in ice for shipment.

The plant has a capacity for dressing nearly 1,800 birds an hour or about 28 a minute. Last week, for instance, the plant bought 122,738 birds and put them through within four days. When I visited the plant last Friday afternoon, every bird had been processed and the plant had been cleaned and made spic and span for the next week’s operations.

J.B. Wood of Siler City is president of the company which owns and operates the processing plant; H.M. Singletary, former county farm agent of Chatham County, is the field man; and L.D. Goodwin is the plant foreman. The company pays out an average of $50,000 a week to poultry producers of Chatham with some portion of the money going into Randolph and Moore counties. There are 61 laborers on the payroll, two-thirds being women and one-third men. Seven truck routes operate out from Siler City gathering up the birds from the various farms. It takes about 15 tons of ice a day to chill the birds or 80 tons a week to keep them in shape before they are stored in the zero chilling rooms awaiting shipments.

The dressed birds are iced and packed in neat, clean wooden boxes and stored in a large refrigerating room until they can be hauled away on government order. Ordinarily they are hauled each day or as fast as they can be processed.

Mr. Wood said that the plant finished processing its millionth pound of poultry on Wednesday, July 11, since the government freezing or set-aside order went into effect in this 10-county area on May 14. Out of the 400,000 pounds of dressed poultry being furnished each week to the War Shipping Administration by the 14-odd dressing and processing plants in this 10-county area, the Siler City plant is furnished one-fourth of the total, or about 125,000 pounds per week.

H.M. Singletary has watched this tremendous production of poultry in Chatham County since it began in a small way in 1925. When he went into Chatham, he saw that something was needed by which the small farm operator could make some money and make it in a hurry. The county was depending almost entirely on cotton for its cash income, although there was some tobacco, and nearly every farm had its small flock of chickens. They were handled just as most farm poultry flocks were handled in those days and very few people were making any real money out of their birds.

During the next six or seven years, Mr. Singletary worked hard to create an interest in poultry and finally the feed mills began to get interested. They aided those who would use their feed in growing the birds. New poultry houses began to appear. Brooder houses were equipped; baby chicks shipped in; a hatchery organized; and finally the Chatham County poultry business started to grow.

Mr. Singletary says as late as 1931, seed loans by the hundreds had to be made so that they farmers would have enough money to start their crops each spring. There were 1,000 such loans placed in one year but last year, 1944, the local Production Credit Association had to almost bed the less than 75 farmers to borrow money for 1944. The poultry has helped the farm operators to get on a cash basis and they do not need the loans as they did a few years ago. The county has three new money crops in dairying, poultry, and tobacco, and they are cashing in on all three.

Of course, the dairy and livestock business is founded on the basis of local feed production. Chatham has always produced feed crops and now farmers are growing more than ever.

Back in 1931-32, the Federal Land Bank had 900 loans on as many farms in the county. Some of them had to be foreclosed because the owners were unable to make enough cash money on their farms to keep the loans solvent. Between one-third to one-half of these loans have now been liquidated because the money needed for expansion into the dairy cattle and poultry business and almost all accounts are current. In fact, the Land Bank would like to have some more loans in that county.

I would not have anyone believe that this has been an easy sort of progress or that Chatham has been transformed overnight into a wealthy county. Nothing of the sort has happened but things are much better than they have been. Chatham people are hard workers. The farmers are almost all small landowners but for years they have been growing feed crops and have grown most of their own food at home. Some people have been amazed to find out, for instance, that though the county had not advertised the fact, Chatham farms were leading the state in producing turkeys. Milk flow goes out of the county in a steady flow. The people know how to grow alfalfa and other hay crops, and so their venture into modern poultry and dairy production has been based on a solid foundation. Both poultry and dairy cows require lots of attention. Growing chickens and milking cows is a seven-day-a-week job. It is confining and it takes the care of intelligent farm owners. Chatham people are willing to give this attention and it is paying them excellent dividends. If they continue to progress as they have been in the past three or four years, Chatham is going to become one of the leading agricultural sections of this state.

N.C. Home Agents' Association Elects Officers, 1956

From the July 1956 issue of Extension Farm-News

The North Carolina Home Agents Association had their annual meeting during Farm and Home Week, June 5, 1956, in the College Union building at State College.

Miss Verna Belle Lowery, home agent in New Hanover County, presented a life membership in the Association to Mrs. Maude McInnes, former home agent in Wake County. She was recognized for her outstanding achievements in service to Extension in North Carolina.

Nine new home agents and assistants were initiated by Miss Rebecca Colwell, Craven County home agent, and Mrs. Eugenia P. VanLandingham, Edgecombe County home agent.

Plans are being made for the Fellowship Party to be held at the National Home Agents Association in Chicago in October. The North Carolina Association is serving as chairman of the Hospitality committee along with Alabama and Oklahoma.

Miss Eleanor Southerland, home agent in Rowan County, was named as a candidate for national secretary.

Newly elected officers of the State Association will take office on January 1. They are: Verna Belle Lowery, New Hanover County, president; Louise Homewood, Caswell County, 1st vice-president; Ainslee Alexander, Lincoln County, 2nd vice-president; Rita Preston, Beaufort County, 3rd vice-president; Rachel Herring, Wayne County, secretary; and Mary Farmer, Buncombe County, treasurer.

Saturday, July 28, 2012

Food for Defense is Focus in 1941

From the June 1941 issue of Extension Farm-News

Extension workers are praised and thanked for their support in the “Food for Defense” program in a letter which Secretary of Agriculture Claude R. Wickard wrote recently to M.L. Wilson, director of Extension for the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

The Secretary wrote as follows: “I have read the letters and reviewed the materials which you have passed on to me from Extension workers. The influence of educational work carried on by Extension forces is far-reaching. It affects the thinking and action of millions of our farm people

“It is therefore most encouraging to me to learn of the enthusiastic vigor with which Extension workers are supporting, through their State and local activities, the nation’s needs for larger quantities of certain kinds of foods. I know that they will continue their efforts in this direction as long as the situation demands it.
“Please convey to them my deep appreciation for the excellent manner in which they have responded to my request for immediate action to support the food-for-defense program”

Director Wilson adds his thanks in a letter to State Extension directors, which reads, in part: “I have been greatly impressed by the very systematic and effective way in which Extension workers everywhere have promptly gone into action. . . . They have accepted with a real spirit of cooperation the Secretary’s statement that this is the department’s No. 1 project at this time.

“We appreciate this tremendous effort on your part, which is another evidence of the capacity of the cooperative Extension Service to revise its program with speed and precision, and focus it with great effectiveness on a new objective.”

Agents to Discuss Defense at 4-H, Farm-Home Weeks
Major aspects of the defense program naturally will be paramounted in the discussions at 4-H Short Course July 28-August 2, and at Farm and Home Week, August 4-8.

Dr. Carl F. Taeusch, head of the Division of Program Planning and Study of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, will be present for both meetings and John W. Goodman, assistant director, announces that Dr. Taeusch will develop discussions with agents and other Extension workers.

A two-hour session will be held each day, at which Extension workers will discuss the following subjects: “What Should Be Done to Insure a Fair Balance Between the Return to Agriculture and Industry as a Result of the Defense Program?” “Adequate Nutrition and Its Relation to Defense and Morale,” and “What Should be the Place of Agriculture in the New World Order Following the War.”

Completion of a full program for 4-H Short Course has been delayed because L.R. Harrill and Miss Frances MacGregor were kept busy during June conducting the Older Youth Conference, opening the 4-H camp season, and escorting North Carolina’s four delegates to the National 4-H Camp in Washington.

Speakers have been obtained for the three evening programs during Farm and Home Week. General J.L. Devers, commanding officer at Fort Bragg, will speak on Tuesday evening; Dr. Helen Mitchell, director of nutrition for the Federal Security Agency, Washington, will speak Wednesday night; and Governor J. Melville Broughton will speak Thursday evening.

Registration for Farm and Home Week has opened, and Miss Ruth Current invites home agents to make reservations for their club women at the earliest possible time to insure desirable rooms. A room reservation fee is $1 and should be sent to Mrs. Nelle Meacham, State College Station. Money will be refunded if reservations are cancelled before July 26.

The committees in charge of arrangements for Farm and Home Week are: Registration, C.M. Brickhouse, chairman; O.F. McCrary and F.S. Sloan; Evening Programs, F.H. Jeter, chairman, J.F. Criswell and Roy H. Park; Exhibits, D.S. Weaver, chairman, Miss Pauline Gordon and B.T. Ferguson; and Program for Men, Morning Sessions and Tours, J.A. Arey, chairman, E.Y. Floyd, L.B. Altman, R.W. Graeber, C.F. Parrish, E.B. Garrett, H.R. Niswonger, and D.S. Coltrane.

Thursday, July 26, 2012

History of Extension Club Work in Mecklenburg County, 1915-1966

The following history of extension home economics work in Mecklenburg County was written in 1969. The author is not known.

A very significant year to the women in North Carolina is 1911. Home Demonstration work was organized in five pioneer states. These states were South Carolina, Virginia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee in the order listed.

In the spring of 1912, agents covered 14 counties in North Carolina. These counties were Alamance, Catawba, Edgecombe, Gates, Granville, Guilford, Hertford, Madison, Mecklenburg, Moore, Pitt, Wake, Wayne, and Wilkes.

Workers were called collaborators and first came through by train with demonstrations set up in box cars. The farm agent gave demonstrations mainly concerning growing cotton under boll weevil conditions which had invaded cotton growers. The home agent gave educational demonstrations in homemaking to the women.

Miss Annie Lee Rankin was the first home agent assigned to Mecklenburg County as a salary of $150.00 for the first year. This was paid by the General Education Board. She was expected to work all year ‘round but with special emphasis during the canning season.

Agents were educated persons experienced in practices. Most were rural school teachers.

4-H Club work had actually already begun with corn clubs for boys and tomato clubs for girls in 1909. It was suggested by Miss Marie Cromer, pioneer home agent of South Carolina, that farm girls could be brought together by growing a tenth acre of tomatoes. Not only were these young people given guidance in growing top quality produce for Northern markets, local hotels, and state institutions, but they were being encouraged to can these foods for home use.

The idea of working through children to reach adults is not anything new. In 1913 there were 15 Southern states organized in home demonstration work.

May 1914 was a real milestone for the Extension Service. At this time the famous Smith-Lever Act was passed appropriating funds for what was to be known as Agricultural and Home Economics Extension Service. By cooperating with the land-grant college, every state in the nation could now have the opportunities of Extension Service.

In 1915 Miss Martha Creighton came to Mecklenburg County as home agent. There was a very loose organization during these years prior to the first World War, however, records do state that it was through home demonstration clubs that the machinery was provided for much of the war emergency work in 1918.

Through the home demonstration clubs there was a systematic way for caring for the sick in the country and with trained leaders acting as practical nurses and operating soup kitchens for those in need.

The first work of the home demonstration agent included instruction for all people, both Negro and white.

In 1918 the first home demonstration organization for Negroes was established. Emergency Negro home agents were placed in 41 counties. At this time there were white agents in 71 North Carolina counties.

After the war emergency period, organized counties dropped to 51 for white and Negro work was discontinued.

Things began to look up in 1919 when Miss Martha Creighton, home agent, invited the existing clubs to a meeting in the old Court House for the purpose of forming a county organization. There were 13 women present, three of whom are living today (1969). These three include Mrs. R.E. McDowell, Mrs. W.F. Watt, and Mrs. Harvey B. Hunter, with Mrs. McDowell elected first federation president. Records are not completely clear as to which clubs made up this original federation. Park Road was the first organized home demonstration club in the county. A community group in Nevin had been meeting together as a Billy Sunday prayer group, later calling themselves the “Help One Another Club.” Hearing about the Park Road Demonstration Club, the Nevin group became the second home demonstration club in Mecklenburg County.

We know two additional clubs being a part of the federation in 1919. They were Sharon and Huntersville.

In 1921 Mrs. McDowell was elected state federation president. Miss Creighton was appointed district agent and replaced by Miss Marian Davis, who remained only one year and was replaced by Miss Bertha Proffitt.

In May 1923 the federation included Central Steele Creek, Derita, Ebenezer, Hopewell, McIver, Nevin, Prosperity, Sardis, Trinity, Park Road, Huntersville, Dixie, and Shopton.

Mrs. Harvey B. Hunter served as federation president in 1923. First steps were taken in 1923 toward the establishment of a market for selling produce.

Characteristics of the home demonstration clubs through the years has been their concern for the progress of the people of the county and their inspired leadership in getting a job done when the need was recognized.

The need for library facilities throughout the county and court house improvements was recognized. After approaching the county commissioners, $5,000 was appropriated for Library Extension work and a plan was proposed for rest rooms in the court house in 1925.

About this time Miss Proffitt, the home agent, gave a demonstration on the use of margarine. She insisted that it could be used in place of butter. Miss Delano Wilson replaced Miss Proffitt as home agent in 1926.

The federation had its first meeting in the new club house on South Myers Street. This was a gift of the county commissioners and was to be shared with the Red Cross, P.T.A., and Mecklenburg Sanitorium board.

A new club house sounds great but along with it were the problems of upkeep, buying coal, frozen pipes and furnace repair. This finally led to joint ownership with the American Legion and eventually with the Federation moving back to the Court House in 1933.

The Myers Street House was used for a meeting in 1932 attended by Mrs. Jane S. McKimmon, who is given credit as the first real pioneer and founder of home demonstration work in North Carolina. Equipment was short in those days and each federation member was asked to bring two cups each to have enough to serve refreshments for Mrs. McKimmon’s visit.

By the thirties, home demonstration work was much stronger in Mecklenburg County. In 1929 Negro home demonstration work had been re-organized with Miss Wilhelmina Laws as home agent. Farm and Home Week in Raleigh was well attended with at least two delegates from each club.

It was in 1930 that Miss Carmen Alexander of Hopewell received recognition for completion of certain classes at Farm & Home Week.

Special projects during this time were roadside beautification, better nutrition due to the increasing number of cases of pellagra resulting from a deficiency of B vitamins.

The home demonstration council sponsored the privy project and during the years 1934-36 promoted the building of 12,577 sanitary privies in North Carolina.

Through WPA assistance many club houses were built in the county and all over the state from 1933-36. Beautification of community and club house grounds and community recreation were big events for th entire community.

In 1936 twelve counties employed full-time Negro home agents. Mrs. Margaret Rogers guided the first Negro Achievement Day in Mecklenburg County, which was held in Clear Creek High School.

Helen John Wright replaced her sister Mrs. Max Culp as home agent in 1938.

In 1939 Mrs. W.E. Neill served as state president of the North Carolina Home Demonstration Clubs.

Mrs. Vester McLaughlin led the council on two occasions, first in 1940 and again in 1965.

Yes, we remember Pearl Harbor. We also remember the garments we made for Bundles for Britain and the 1,438 cotton mattresses made in the mattress program.

Victory gardens were urged and the club women assisted the lunchrooms by giving canned foods and raising funds to finance school lunch rooms.

Two war food assistants were assigned to the Mecklenburg Extension staff in 1944. These agents gave demonstrations on the use of foods to replace meats. There was also a lot of sewing for the Red Cross and rolling of bandages and dressings. Economy was necessary and demonstrations were given on remodeling and making over old clothes.

Rayon was the clothing news of 1945 for commercially purchased fabric. We were taught that it was crease-resistant, water repellant and moth proof. That same year printed feed sacks were available and contests for fair entries featured feed sack garments.

During Mrs. Ollie Hoover’s term as Federation president in 1945-46, the county had six freezer locker plants. Freezing the home food supply received great emphasis along with home dairying, poultry flocks, and improved water systems.

Mrs. Minnie Brown, Negro home agent, worked in Meckenburg in 1947 and later moved on to the State Extension office.

Mrs. J.C. Berryhill led 17 clubs in the county through her leadership as council president. She was one of three from Mecklenburg who went on to serve as State Council President.

In 1960 Miss Kathleen Nelson came to Mecklenburg County from South Carolina as home economics extension agent, moving on to district agent in 1967.

In 1962 the council published the cookbook Foods We Remember, and subsequently sold close to 10,000 copies.

Mrs. Jo Ann Hodge replaced Miss Maude Middleton as home agent. Miss Middleton had served Mecklenburg as home agent for 15 years.

Alice Bell came to Charlotte in 1965 presenting a charm school which was sponsored by the Extension Homemakers Council.

Through the years Extension Homemakers had mastered many home economics skills and crafts. In an effort to share these with others, the first Home Economics Skills and Crafts Fair was held in 1968. This was so successful that it was repeated again in 1969 and proved twice as successful as the first.

The enthusiasm of the Skills and Crafts Fair prompted a fall trip by the Craft leaders to the Craftsman’s Fair of the Southern Highlands in Gatlinburg, Tennessee.

1965-66 marked the merging of two home demonstration club organizations, the Negro and the white, into one county organization. The name of the home demonstration clubs became Extension Homemaker Clubs and once again we try to become accustomed to progress and the new terminology.

Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Farm Population Decreasing, 1954

From the July 1954 issue of Extension Farm-News

North Carolina’s farm population decreased from 1,520,000 to 1,481,000 between 1920 and 1950, while the total population increased from 2,573,000 to 4,062,000 during the same period. In 1920 the farm population was 59.1 per cent of the total state population, but by 1950 the proportion living on farms was reduced to 26.5 per cent. 

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

What the Rocky Mount Curb Market Has Meant to My Family, 1933

Around 1933, Effie Vines Gordon, home demonstration agent in Nash County, was asked to make a presentation on the success of the Rocky Mount Home Demonstration Club Curb Market. Mrs. Gordon interviewed a number of women who sold at the market and their reports are below. I can’t tell you who said what, but Mrs. Edwin Bass, a very successful seller at the curb market, brought a typical curb market display to Mrs. Gordon’s presentation.

Dr. C.B. Smith, referenced below is the former chief of the Office of Cooperative Extension Work, USDA. You can read his collection of essays and poems, “Life Worth While,” online at http://4-hhistorypreservation.com/eMedia/eBooks/Life_Worth_While.pdf.

When the market was opened in 1923, one lady gathered up headed lettuce in a clothes basket, and she sold out completely. She made two cakes for the next market and sold them. She made more cakes and in the 20 years the market had been open, she had sold $18,666 worth. This lady and her two sisters made their reputation in cakes and dressings. “We are positive if it had not been for the curb market we would have been in the county home, or worse still, dependent upon relatives. Our home was mortgaged and now we have our home, a comfortable one. We own our car, a small savings account, and we don’t owe a penny.”
“During the past six years I have been attending the curb market and I have found it to be a place of interest as well as helping us fight our financial worries. First of all I think it is financial needs that prompt us to attend, and then once we get started we cannot stop. It isn’t a novelty that soon wears away. It gets next to us and we always want to come back. We look forward to seeing our customers whom we soon learn to love. For we have learned through the curb market that our town folks are just as sweet and pleasant as they can be.”
“In the past six years since I have been attending the market, I have sold $2,500 worth consisting of flowers, vegetables, chickens and eggs. I have used this money towards supporting the family and adding a few new furnishings for the home.
“Due to the Rocky Mount Curb Market, our family enjoys the privileges of buying all the necessary groceries for cash rather than paying high credit prices. The market also clothes and family, buys all school supplies, and keeps the family car going. Personally, I enjoy the social neighborliness of each market morning and the cordial greetings of each of my customers as well as the sellers. My sales for 1932 were $530. Sales in May were $78; $25 of which was for sweet peas.”
“I have sold $956 worth of produce since I have been attending the curb market. I used my flower money for my clothes and a good time, until the depression came on. Last year I bought fertilizer and groceries, paid my cook and hired man on the farm. I bought a ton of fertilizer and a half barrel of flour and had two dollars left in change from one week’s sale of flowers. I paid the interest for four months on a note at the bank, which was $28 each month. My little girl sold five little foxes they found in the woods and wild flowers enough to buy a good second-hand piano. They have a little flower garden and are selling flowers to get money for school dresses and music lessons this winter; they are nine and eleven years of age.”
“By selling on the market I have clothed and partly fed a family of seven for eight years, also bought a new car and paid doctors’ and dentists’ bills.”
“The curb market has done for our family the following: sent one boy three years to Wake Forest College with the second boy entering this year. One year’s sale amounted to $828.”
“I have been going to curb market since June 3, 1933. I have sold over $20 worth. With the money I helped to buy the food and clothes for a family of nine. I am 13 years old and am a member of the 4-H Club of West Edgecombe.”
“My reason for being a booster of the curb market is that it is helpful in several ways. We can have a place to sell our surplus vegetables and it is helpful in getting a little cash at a time when it is very needed. It is a good place to give children some training in an educational way, also brings you in personal contact with the public so we can learn more about each other’s ways and I really enjoy being with the people.”
“When I was 10 years old, I began to come to the curb market regularly. For several years I helped my sister to make cakes and pies to sell. During my freshman year at Meredith, the money I received from the market paid for my board and clothes. For the past two years, I have been at Eastern Carolina Teachers college, and the curb market has paid a great part in keeping me there. With aid of themarket, I am hoping to finish college in June.”
“The curb market has been our greatest help in time of our greatest need.”

Monday, July 23, 2012

North Carolina 4-H Club Week at N.C. State, 1956

From the July 1956 issue of Extension Farm-News

Characterizing the assembled 4-H club members as “the most important group in North Carolina,” Dr. William H. Alexander, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in Oklahoma City, Okla., was one of the featured speakers at the 30th annual North Carolina Club Week held in Raleigh July 23-27.

Registration of the 1,200 delegates from all the counties of the state began Monday morning. Accompanied by county extension farm and home agents, the delegates met for their major sessions in the William Neal Reynolds Coliseum on the North Carolina State College campus.

President of the State 4-H Council Nancy Johnson of Route 1, Newton, presided at the opening evening session.

State Council officers who presided at other sessions of the annual meeting were Neal Kelly of Waynesville, vice-president; Ronald Pinkerton, Asheville, secretary-treasurer; and Joan Crawford, Haynesville, historian.

Chancellor of North Carolina State College Carey H. Bostian welcomed the delegates at the first morning session. Everett Bierman from the National 4-H Foundation described the work of the International Farm Youth Exchange program.

Dr. Alexander told the youthful leaders, “You don’t have to look like you are advertising a coffin factory nor use your lower lip for a lap robe to lead a clean, wholesome life.”

Rural Youth and Recreation for the State of Indiana Gordon Jones worked closely with the delegates during the meeting.

Wednesday evening’s featured event was the state dress revue. Gretchen O’Neall, last year’s winner, was presented to the audience at the beginning of the fashion show. The dress revue winner Florence Payne of Davidson County has been her county’s winner for the past three year.

The annual Health pageant, “Stamp of the Scots” was written by Margaret Finlays Spruill of Lumberton. It featured the 4-H members from Robeson County and the county winners from all over the state. At the conclusion of the pageant, the king and queen of health were named. Honored were Jerry White of Iredell County and Jean Edwards of Perquimans County.

The installation of the newly elected officers of the State Council took place on Friday night. The new officers are Bill Pennell, Lenoir, Route 2, president; Clyde Templeton, Olin, Iredell County, vice-president; Clara Vann Tysinger, Lexington, Route 6, secretary-treasurer; Buster Bunn, Asheville, Route 2, historian.

Sunday, July 22, 2012

Cut Wood by the Season, Not Phases of the Moon, 1954

Extension Farm-News, July 1954 issue

Many farmers, who cut wood for curing tobacco, heating the home or cooking claim that wood cut in the “dark of the moon” will not dry out properly. They say they can’t get as much heat out of it as wood cut in the “light of the moon.”

John Gray, in charge of Extension forestry, will say only that he has never seen any scientific evidence that the moon’s phase has anything to do with the way wood burns.

But the season of the year is a different matter. Gray says winter-cut wood can be stored six or more months longer without deteriorating than summer-cut wood.

Saturday, July 21, 2012

Anson County Club Women Become Businesswomen, 1915-1932

From a report by Rosalind Redfearn, Anson County home demonstration agent, 1933.

In Anson County, my native county, the money crop has always been considered cotton. However, large numbers of our people are turning more and more to such things as poultry, eggs, turkeys, cream and fresh and canned vegetables.

The income derived from the successful marketing of these products by the farm family may mean the difference between comfort and the bare necessities; it may mean the difference between contentment and worry; it may mean the difference between happiness and despair.

In the early years of our canning club work in 1915 and 1916, the women and the girls were growing and canning the produce from their one-tenth acres of tomatoes and beans. While attending the farmers’ convention at State College, we secured the cooperation of the steward of the college in giving an order for canned beans, tomatoes and blackberry jam, all to be put in No. 10 cans. We were so pleased with our check for $713 that the next year we added peach jam to the order. We continued to fill these orders until the year 1918 when “sugarless days” were in force and the price of all containers and foodstuffs increased so that we could not continue with any degree of profit.

In the meantime the women were increasing their poultry flocks and we had poultry clubs in the county with girls and boys in addition to canning clubs. We were having more and more calls from the town people for broilers, for beans, for country sausage, for fig preserves, for fresh eggs—making notes of these things and having the club women bring them into the agent’s office, usually on Fridays.

From this grew the idea of having sales days at Thanksgiving, Christmas and Easter. We called these “Home Product Sales,” running them from one to three days. The first one of these produce sales netted $678, which we were most happy over. This small beginning gave us a vision of something bigger and broader.

The following summer while attending the farmers’ convention we went with the steward of the college to the storeroom in the interest of our canned goods shipments, and while there he showed us the cold storage rooms where the meats were kept. The thought flashed through my mind, “Why can’t we ship dressed hens?” And when we learned that these fowls had been coming from Baltimore and other cold storage points, we asked if we could not ship hens too. The steward seemed a little doubtful, but we assured him that if he would give us just one order and if it was not successful we would not trouble him any more. We asked him how many chickens he would use a week and he said, “We do not buy them by the piece but by the pound—and it takes 300 pounds.” We asked him to give us an order for 300 pounds “more or less” until we could learn how many hens weighed 300 pounds. We notified a number of our club women of the order and as hens were bringing only 12 ½ cents a pound at that time alive and dressed hens were 20 cents, they were delighted with the idea of shipping cooperatively.

We immediately began to organize the communities by listing those who had surplus hens for sale so that we could hold the order throughout the season, which we did. We soon received an order from a fancy grocer in Raleigh who wanted 30 dressed and drawn hens each week, so this was added, and it enabled us to take on more producers. When the turkey season came we began to receive inquiries for turkeys and began the parcel post system of shipping to individual customers in the cities. These people did our advertising; many additional orders were received because of their recommendations.

From this has grown our present system of county-wide cooperative shipping of produce to colleges, merchants, institutions, hotels, and also to private customers. It is a cooperative project conducted by both the home and the farm agents.

Beginning with 15 families we have grown to 301 families, and the people depend upon it as an outlet for surplus hens, broilers, eggs and turkeys.

Today with our carload shipping of live poultry also, we have 900 families represented.

The plan became so popular that the schools and churches often wanted to take part and through donations of live hens by the community which were plucked and placed in our orders, paint, seats, stage curtains, pianos and other equipment were purchased.

As a result of this cooperative shipping to outside markets, the production of poultry in Anson County has increased 65 per cent. The growing of turkeys has been multiplied four times. From small flocks of mixed mongrel birds, our farm men and women have changed their flocks to pure bred varieties, and have increased the number of hens kept for egg production. The flocks are handled by improved methods in housing, feeding and general care. Brooker houses, laying houses, and poultry lots wire in, are found all over the county.

Turkeys are also raised in brooder houses now and the production of this favorite bird has grown by leaps and bounds since better methods of management have been used, and since we have had the assurance of a good outside market. Today poultry, eggs and turkeys are among the main cash crops grown in Anson County.

From the small beginning of $713 in 1916, our outside marketing has grown steadily. The largest amount received was in 1928-29 when prices were at their peaks.

The years of the depression did not affect our volume of business in production, but prices have declined to less than half of what they were in preceding years.

In addition to the dressed fowls we ship live carlots also. The amounts given below include the sales value of all forms of marketing used in Anson County:
                1916       $713
                1919       $3,009
                1921       $6,501
                1923       $11,556
                1924       $16,620
                1925       $17,340
                1926       $19,400
                1928       $55,411
                1929       $48,300
                1930       $29,592
                1931       $28,097
                1932       $19,986

This system of marketing means much to women. It has broken down that old feeling of timidity and has developed many real business women. It has enabled the town and country women to meet together in a friendly, happy relationship. New friendships are formed, new ideas developed. It has enabled the women to do things for their families that all mothers like to do: to provide clothing, school books, trips, college for the boy and girl, comforts for the home. I could mention many, many things, but summed up they mean that each one of us has a part in life to play and when we strive with our own hands and minds to make the best better, we can go far in making life finer and sweeter in every way.

Thursday, July 19, 2012

Columbus County Farmers Set Pay for Farm Hands at $3.50 and $2.50 per Day, 1945

By F.H. Jeter, Extension Editor, N.C. State College, Raleigh, as published in the Wilmington Star on July 9, 1945

Tobacco is now going rapidly into the curing barns of eastern North Carolina but before the harvest started in Cerro Gordo section of Columbus County, the folks in that little community held a meeting in which landlords, tenants, and farm laborers all sat down together to discuss how to handle the 1945 harvest. The folks had been especially pleased with the way in which they had handled the situation in 1944 when one of its heaviest crops ever grown there had been harvested and cured with more ease than any crop previously grown. Last year, the standard price was $3.00 a day from croppers or primers and $2.00 a day for barn hands.

It was agreed at this conference that prices had increased to such an extent that some increase in wages would have to be made this year. After the whole matter had been discussed, pro and con, for about an hour, it was agreed by each person present that the price for harvesting the Cerro Gordo tobacco crop this year would be $3.50 for croppers and $2.50 for barn hands.

Every person there also agreed that he would discuss the matter with his neighbors and insist that everyone in the whole community live up to this agreement. No one would be paid less and no one paid more.

Charley Raper, farm agent, said these prices might not suit elsewhere but that they were agreed upon by all—landlords, tenants, laborers—who felt that by such cooperation each farmer in the community would have an equal chance in getting his tobacco primed and cured and there would not be the problem of the big farmer fighting the little man for such labor as might be available, nor of one man trying to get his work done for a little less than what had been agreed upon as a fair wage. Mr. Raper suggested that other communities over North Carolina might find that they could solve many of their local problems by sitting down and having a thorough discussion of the entire matter, reaching some agreement, and then sticking to it.

Wednesday, July 18, 2012

Delsie Holland Remembers

“I Remember When” by Delsie Holland, as published in Special Memories: A collection of stories by Chowan County Extension Homemakers

I remember . . .

Coming home from school so hungry and finding a large pan of baked sweet potatoes, still warm, in the wood cook stove. (Better for a snack than a Twinkie.)

My sister Beatrice and I making up our feather bed together. To get it smooth all over, Bea would take a stick broom, lay it across the bed and each taking an end and applying a little pressure to the feathers, we would push it from one end to the other. We finally could get it smooth enough to meet Mama’s approval.

Our house was swept entirely with a straw broom and our yard with wax myrtle limbs.

The family gathered around a wood heater and each member, largest to the smallest of us, had a pan to pop peanuts for seed. Some used a wooden peanut popper, others just finished up with sore fingers.

The young girls were not allowed to read trash like “True Confession” and “True Stories,” but what Mama didn’t know (or did she) that we did read them when they were placed in the outside toilet to be recycled. (It got might cold out there if the story was real long).

Reading the Burma Shave signs on 17 North when enroute to Winfall to visit our Grandmama.

Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Farmers Losing Chicken to Thieves and Mites, 1945

By F.H. Jeter, Extension Editor, N.C. State College, Raleigh, as published in the Wilmington Star on July 9, 1945

Chickens continue to be spotlighted in the news. Reports are received nearly every day telling of thieves visiting poultry farms by night and cleaning them out of chickens.

The thieves do not seem to be so particular as to whether they take laying hens, broilers, or fine breeding birds. Apparently, all they are interested in is getting a supply of birds that they can sell for meat. Poultrymen, therefore, are again advised to keep a sharp watch over their flocks.

Bob Smith, farm agent of Wilkes County, says some indication of the way in which farmers of his county are growing poultry this year may be seen on the farm of Ed Heitinger who has 53,000 young birds, most of which are now out on open range. He plans to select 17,000 laying hens from these young birds and sell the remainder on the market.

But because of the shortage of meat over the state, a number of persons are starting back chicks later than usual this year. Roy Dearstyne, head poultryman at State College, says many hatcheries are booked with orders far ahead to meet this demand for summer hatched chicks.

However, while the starting and raising of chicks at this time of the year may add to the available supply of meat, it must be emphasized that the chicks which are started now do not have a comparable vitality to those that are hatched earlier in the year. They do not make comparable growth and apparently are nightly susceptible to any disease that may be prevalent. Persons starting chicks at this season should be very careful to avoid overcrowding, must pay careful attention to ventilation as often cool nights follow very hot days, and should practice rigid sanitation. Don’t expect too much from these chicks as the appetite is quite dormant in hot weather and usually it takes about two weeks longer to bring them to [target?] weight than those started in the spring.

But the hot weather also brings another problem for the poultryman. The common red mite of chickens costs and poultrymen of this state many thousand dollars in direct and indirect losses each year. While direct death from mite infection is quite uncommon, the infection with mites causes reduction and reduced vitality and, therefore, may predispose to disease.

Great numbers of mites attack a single bird at night while it is on the roost. After feeding, the mites crawl back to their hiding places and lay eggs. A female lays about four eggs in 24 hours and feeds again before laying four more eggs. The cycle may be repeated eight or more times. The eggs hatch in about two weeks.

Birds on which mites feed appear pale and unthrifty because of the loss of blood; growth is retarded; and production drops.

Dearstyne asks every poultryman to be on the lookout for mite infection during these warm summer months and watch his egg production for sudden drops in laying. Eggs are becoming as scarce as meat. Once every two weeks, one or more perch poles should be detached and the underside examined for mites. They appear gray or reddish masses of small insects. If mites are found on perches, nests, and dropping boards should be painted or sprayed with a wood preservative containing anthracine oil. If this cannot be obtained, crude petroleum or crank case oil would be effective.

The food situation in the vicinity of Wilmington must be rather acute, J.E. Dodson, farm agent of Brunswick County, has observed that a good many city and small town people are combing the county for chickens, lard, cured pork, and beef these days but they are meeting with very little success in finding any of these products. He says, “We do not believe there is nearly as much black market operations as some people think. There is an actual scarcity of meat products, and conditions are probably going to get worse if Selective Service continues to take labor from the farms. Those boys who are being discharged from the armed services are not coming back to the farms, in this particular section, because of the simple fact that they can make more money elsewhere.”

Monday, July 16, 2012

Long Hill Home Demonstration Club, Cumberland County

By Mrs. Martin Chambo, as published in the Tar Heel Homemakers newspaper, January-March 1986 issue.

The Long Hill Home Demonstration Club first met in July 1933 at the home of Mrs. Mae (W.D.) Johnson in Slocumb. There were seven women present. Miss Elizabeth Gainey, the Cumberland County Agent, met with them and gave them a lesson on canning tomatoes.

They met again in August with six present at the home of Mrs. Emma (J.L.) Reaves and canned corn. The club was formally organized in October 1933 with 10 members. The first meetings were held in the Long Hill School House.

After the first summer spent canning, members went on to learn about sewing, cooking, and all of the other areas of demonstration as offered. This club has participated in all of the Achievement Days, county council meetings, and projects which the county has sponsored, contributing labor, money, and attendance. In 1934 and 1935 there were 23 on the roll. Since then the average has been 20 to 25. Two members have also served as county council president and one as district president.

The Long Hill Club assisted with the organization and upkeep of the Cumberland Memorial Park, with one member serving on that committee all the years the park was under county council management.

Over the years, several members have participated in the selling of farm produce, crafts, flowers, etc., at the Curb Market. During the time when there was a Farm and Home Week at State College in Raleigh, the club paid the expenses of two members to attend this.

It has been a club tradition to have a Family and Friends Picnic every year in August. Some of the activities that have been participated in together at this time include The Outdoor Drama at the House in the Horseshoe near Carthage, N.C., with a guided tour of the house, and the drama Strike at the Wind at Pembroke, N.C., as well as picnics at Carvers Falls, The Locks on the Cape Fear River, and at members’ homes and other locations.

The club has always participated in the Cumberland County Fair, providing workers and exhibitors. The first year we won a blue ribbon as a club with the exhibit “Food for a Family of Four.” Each time the club has prepared a booth, they have won a blue ribbon. In 1981, the club received the price for having more ribbons won by our exhibitors than any other club.

Many honors and ribbons have also been brought to the club by its members from the Garden Center at Sears on flower arrangement and horticulture.

Two members were selected by the county as “Mother of the Year,” Mrs. B.A. Darden in 1959 and Mrs. J.L. Reaves in 1970. Both went on to Raleigh to participate in the State “Mother of the Year” contest.

The Long Hill Club has been one of the top four clubs in the county many times since these records have been kept. The Long Hill 4-H Club was sponsored for years by the club until 1967. In the community, members regularly visited hospital, rest homes, and the homes of the sick, taking food, gifts, and favors as needed. Also every Thanksgiving, fruit baskets are taken along with the visits.

On March 27, 1983, the club celebrated its 50th Anniversary with a reception held at the County Office Building. With 24 current active members, the club is looking forward to continuing its present activities and reaching out into other areas as it begins its second 50 years.

Sunday, July 15, 2012

N.C. Farmers Share Results with Livestock, Potato Crops, 1946

By F.H. Jeter, Extension Editor, N.C. State College, as published in the Wilmington Star, July 8, 1946

North Carolina farmers say it appears that they must grow their own feed or go out of the livestock and poultry business.

According to Troy McKnight of Mt. Airy, Route 1, Surry County, it’s an easy matter to get most of your feed from crops grown on the home farm. Mr. McKnight bought 20 pigs about 50 days ago. They weighed about 45 pounds each, and now each pig will average about 140 pounds each. This gain was made largely on a good pasture of Ladino clover and orchard grass.

In other words, the animals gained an average of 95 pounds in 50 days, which is much over the accepted average gain of a pound a day. To be exact, it is a gain of 1 9/10ths of a pound a day. The pigs had all the succulent grazing that they could consume, and then the lot was fed 4 pounds of wheat bran and 1 ½ bushels of corn and 200 pounds of the bran for the entire lot during the 50 days. Mr. McKnight said it was about the cheapest pork that he had ever produced.

Norman Teer of Durham County has cut more than a ton of extra hay an acre from a 5-acre pasture which he seeded last September to orchard grass, herds grass, and Ladino clover. To be certain that he had plenty of feed for his 10 cows, he also seeded a supplementary pasture of barley, oats, vetch, and crimson clover.

Mr. Teer says that this supplementary pasture furnished all the grazing that he needed for eight to 10 cows kept on the 5-acre field from the first of March until the first of June.

Tyrrell County farmers have been greatly pleased with the seedings of vetch and oats which they planted for hay last fall. T.H. Blake of Columbia, Route 2, has been planting this kind of hay mixture for 7 years, and, this spring, he cut an average of 2 ½ tons of good hay per acre from 3 ½ acres. Before the hay was cut, Farm Agent H.H. Harriss visited the farm and says that the growth stood an average of 4 feet high. At places it was high enough to hide a man standing upright in the field.

The seeding was made last fall on the first of October when Mr. Blake planted 1 ½ bushels of oats and 15 pounds of vetch seed an acre. It is best, he said, to use only this much oat seed so that the growth might better support the vetch. Corn has been planted on the stubble and, thus, a double supply of feed will be grown on this 3 1/2 acre plot.

Ralph Summey of Dallis, Route 1, Gaston County, planted 6 acres of good land early last fall with 2 bushels of barley, 2 bushels of oats, and 15 pounds of crimson clover seed per acre. He fertilized the land before planting with 300 pounds per acre of a 4-10-6 fertilizer and then he added 100 pounds of nitrate of soda, in addition to a good coating of stable manure.

This spring, when he badly needed food, Mr. Summey put 40 cows on this 6 acres and kept them there for 30 days. He says the 40 cows got all of the grazing they wanted on this 6 acres and that the milk flow of the herd jumped by 10 gallons a day. Not only that, but he saved some very valuable lespedeza hay that he badly needed for future feeding. Mr. Summery told Farm Agent Paul Kiser that supplementary grazing, planted in the fall, provides the cheapest feed that can be produced on a farm, and that it fills a gap in early spring before the pasture is ready. Mr. Kiser says nearly all the dairymen in Gaston County will plant grazing crops this fall. This will be true of North Carolina as a whole.

Another very interesting field demonstration was conducted in Tyrrell County this spring when C.E. Morris of Columbia, Route 2, tried out the difference in spacing Irish potato plantings on the row. He used the rate of 2,300 pounds per acre of a 6-8-6 fertilizer under the crop, planting Cobbler seed on March 4. Plots were then laid off and the seed pieces spaced 9 inches apart on the row; 12 inches apart; and 15 inches apart.

Observations made on April 22 showed that the seed pieces planted 9 inches apart were showing the quickest growth, with the 12 inch spacing next. All of the plots were harvested on June 4, and, where the potatoes had been planted 9 inches apart, the crop produced 260 bushels of U.S. No. 1’s; but they were small and would have been penalized had there been too many of this size offered on the market. The feathering also was at least 20 per cent greater than on the other two plots.

Where the potatoes had been planted 12 inches apart, they produced 276 bushels of U.S. No. 2’s. The tubers from these plots were all of good quality and size.

Where the planting was 15 inches apart on the row, the yield was 236 bushels of U.S. No. 1’s, and 18 bushels of U.S. No. 2’s per acre. The tubers here were larger than where they were planted 12 inches apart, and the color of the skin indicated that they were more mature than were those harvested from the other two plots. However, there was no difference in feathering.

As a result of his demonstration, Mr. Morris said that 12 inches seems to be the best distance apart for planting early Irish potatoes in that section. Higher yields and a better quality were obtained and the tubers were very uniform, of a medium-large size and of high quality. The 12-inch spacing yielded 16 bushels more per acre than where the seed pieces were spaced 9 inches apart and 40 bushels more than where they were spaced 15 inches apart.

Therefore, those who grow early Irish potatoes next year should stick to the 12-inch spacing.

Isaac Brickhouse of Columbia, Route 2, also is trying out an interesting demonstration this year in an attempt to control the flea beetle which infests the sweet potato crop of Tyrrell County. Mr. Brickhouse is cooperating with Farm Agent Harris and Dr. C.F. Smith, research entomologist of the State College Experiment Station, to spray a portion of his field with a DDT solution to control the pest. The plot is being re-sprayed after each rain so as to keep the vines covered. 

Levy Swain of Columbia, Route 2, is duplicating this test, and they say they should be able to find out whether the DDT will help them in protecting their sweet potato crops.

Saturday, July 14, 2012

Cleveland County Homemakers Trace First 50 Years

Tar Heel Homemakers newspaper, January-March 1986 issue.

Cleveland County Extension Homemakers used the theme “Growing Through Extension Homemakers” as members took a reflective members look at their organization over the past 60 years at Achievement Night. Members told about educational programs and club work through skits and exhibits from the 1920s through the 1980s.

Pearl Warlick, county council president, presided and gave a brief history of Extension Homemaker work in Cleveland County from 1915 to 1985.

Home demonstration work in Cleveland County began January 1, 1915, under the leadership of Mrs. Susan O. Elliott Weathers. The work was mostly canning and the clubs were called canning clubs. Work progressed slowly as the agent traveled in a buggy and could only contact a few women.

In the early years there was some objection to college-trained homemakers as the experience housewife was thought to be better qualified to train and help women and girls. This barrier was gradually broken down as women gained a better understanding of the services being offered.

The greatest contribution homemakers made in World War I was the preparation of new dishes from the food that was available. The leaders were very active in Red Cross work and knitted many sweaters and socks for the soldiers.

The programs in these early clubs were on home improvement, better methods of cooking and sewing, and better sanitation and lighting.

In 1928 the county federation, now called county council, was organized. Eleven clubs were started in 1947. Most of the club members were farm women.

The Cleveland County Council on Negro Home Demonstration Clubs was organized in the fall of 1947.

Early club programs included food production and conservation, care and use of pressure canners, storage of food, and nutritional needs for all family members.

Club programs during the later years, included home management, clothing, house furnishings, family relations, housing and nutrition.

In 1966 the two councils were combined into one and the name was changed from Home Demonstration to Extension Homemakers.

Miss Jessie Ann Wingo began work with the clubs on July 1, 1959, and Mrs. Nancy Abasiekong came to the county September 1, 1977.

For the past few years emphasis has been placed on energy conservation, curbing inflation, effective parenting, and changing eating habits for more healthful living.

There are currently 18 Extension Homemaker Clubs with 262 members in Cleveland County.

Dairy Farmers Can't Depend on Pastures in July, 1954

Extension Farm-News, July 1954 issue

Tar Heel dairymen are reminded that now is the time to supplement short pastures with silage or hay.

George Hyatt Jr., in charge of Extension dairying, says milk production in North Carolina has fallen “very rapidly” during recent hot, dry weather. In fact, said Hyatt, the situation is critical. A few weeks ago, there was a surplus of milk being produced in the state. At the present there is a shortage.

A lack of feed is the principal reason for the drop in milk production, said Hyatt, even though hot weather and flies usually take the blame. “When the weather gets hot, pastures dry up rapidly. Cows graze less hours because of the heat and flies, so they end up short of feed.”

Friday, July 13, 2012

Neglect Spreads Typhoid, 1916

From the July, 1916, issue of The Southern Planter

While typhoid is essentially a disease of human filth and can only be contracted by getting into the body germs that have come from the body of someone who has or had had typhoid, the great increase in the disease during the early months of summer is due to the activities of flies and to the careless disposal of filth from early cases.

Within reasonable bounds, it is possible for people of a community to control typhoid by caring for the filth from all persons, sick and well. Whenever an early case occurs, it is generally possible to stop the disease by seeing to it that all wastes from the body are disinfected and disposed of where they can cause no harm.

For this reason, it is highly important that every case receive proper attention and that certain rules be followed to the letter. These rules, issued in the form of “Bedside Directions for the Care of Typhoid Cases” Can be had free upon request to the State Board of Health. In household and neighborhoods where there is much early typhoid it is always best for those who may be exposed to the disease to protect themselves by typhoid vaccination.

Thursday, July 12, 2012

What Was Happening in N.C. Farming, July 1953

From “Personal Mention” column by Frank Jeter in the July 1953 issue of Extension Farm-News

What to do about Farm and Home Week? It’s a North Carolina institution too great to be abandoned. Some have suggested this step, but maybe it’s our fault. No doubt it needs a shot in the arm. But those who get discouraged about the effectiveness of the Week, should take time to watch the folks who gather here. See how they meet, mingle, laugh, greet old friends, make new acquaintances. Farm and Home Week is one of the traditions of State College, and no amount of special field days, institutes, short courses, conferences, and other gatherings and celebrations can take its place.

Let’s have more Panhandle Petes, interesting demonstrations, good exhibits, and places to sit down. Older visitors to Farm and Home Week do not like to be herded through small laboratories, forced to stand on a hot day and listen to discussions about apparatus which they can see only with greatest difficulty. They are interesting, but not that interesting. So let’s give Farm and Home Week a shot in the arm, not abandon it.

Epsilon sigma Phi, the Extension Fraternity came back with new life this year, thanks to efficient planning and definite organization by Florence Cox and Margaret Clark. Chief Ewing Millsaps gave them a job to do and they did it. One of the best business meetings in years and a wonderful banquet although time was short for both.

The Home Demonstration Club women made good on their tribute to Col. and Mrs. John Harrelson. The Colonel and his lady appreciated the matched baggage given them, he said, but what would they use for money to fill them now that he was retiring.

A great celebration of the establishment of demonstration and Extension in the South. Everyone did his assigned job in excellent fashion and those who remained throughout the whole afternoon said it was an inspiring thing for them to learn again how this great work began and has functioned over 50 years. A recording of the event was filed in the College Library for future generations to hear how this work started and has flourished in North Carolina through the dedicated service of unselfish pioneers.

The best dinner of all, said friends of Mrs. Willis, John Arey, Landy Altman, Otis McCrary, and “Nice” Niswonger. They were among home-folks who knew of their work and loved them for what they are and had done. John and “Nice” should never forget the occasion, wonderful gifts supplied by interested friends. The three district people had been honored previously with gifts in their own districts. This dinner was another instance of teamwork in Extension. That’s the way we accomplish the good things we set out to do. Without teamwork, there is no definite and satisfactory accomplishment.

Orchids to our School of Forestry. The Seaboard Railroad issued a special edition of its forestry bulletin telling of the work of Dr. Preston and associates and about new Kilgore Hall, housing Forestry and Prof. Gardner’s horticulture department.

A hearty congratulations to Ainslee Alexander and the Lincolnton Rotary Club for honoring the outstanding HD Club member, Mrs. Cleo Finger, and the outstanding Lincoln County club, the Union Home Demonstration Club, at a dinner with gifts for each of the other 15 women nominated for the distinguished honor. A well-planned and significant occasion.

And that first county-wide home demonstration picnic for Wilson County. Mrs. Ona Humphrey and her food leaders, headed by Mrs. W.H. Blalock of Lucama, deserve all the wonderful praise one could heap upon their capable shoulders. It was just about the nicest thing this editor has attended in many a day. The final count showed about 600 people and there was food enough for all.

A song program by the Wilson County Chorus of 32 voices, a cool beautiful summer evening, a pleasing environment, great servings of fried chicken, baked ham, and all the other things the good cooks of Wilson County know how to prepare, a fine feeling of fellowship and good will. What more could one ask for any single occasion. Joe Anthony was there; also W.D. Lewis, W.P. Farrior and Hilton Carlton. Dorothy Wheeler blushing when the chorus sang, “Let Me Call You Sweetheart” and trying not to be self-conscious about her approaching wedding. A wonderful eveing.

The Johnson County 4-H group won first honors at the Negro 4-H Club federation meeting at Trenton. Sherman Shelton says Jones did right well. Individual honors went to Roberta Suggs of Wayne. Nearly 500 contestants were on hand. Edward R. King of Edgecombe County is the new president of the Negro 4-H Council of North Carolina. Word from R.E. Jones says this A. and T. event was a successful occasion.

A wonderful trip over TVA territory and across North Carolina to Raleigh. Brice Ratchford in charge with Rufus Vick, Velma Moore, Maurice Scrotts and Mrs. Charles Bernard getting the inspecting group off to a good start as the visitors convened at Hayesville and began their trip to study the TVA farm management work in North Carolina. Notable achievements to see.

In the June issue of Lester Schlup’s Extension Service Review, S.R. Winters, freelance writer of Washington, D.C., extols the voluntary hospital insurance plan working so effectively in Haywood County. A compliment to Wayne Corpening. Now Wayne leaves us to develop a farm program for Wachovia Bank and Trust Company and is succeeded in the Western District by Bryan Collins, another good man with his feet solidly on the ground and steeped through experience in the Extension tradition.

The Asheville Agricultural Council is cooperating nicely with Riley Palmer and other Extension folks in the Western District and helping to bring about definite community accomplishments. Eager young agents were here to attend the In-Service Training School and [it was] a pleasure to work with them, about 50 learning what makes Extension tick in North Carolina. Fred Sloan was doing a good job as director of the school. Give Fred a hand also for hard work as Secretary of Farm and Home Week…a tough assignment.

Now we have an agricultural man as head of the North Carolina State College. General satisfaction was expressed at the selection of Dr. Carey Bostian as Chancellor, a Rowan farm boy who made good and who knows State College and how to work and work hard.

Swindell Lowery says the Albemarle Potato Festival was a success, the weather favorable, and more than 50,000 people in Elizabeth City for the occasion.

A hand to W.N. Payton Jr. for his work in helping to renovate and improve the homes of Negro farm families in Lenoir County and a nice story in the Kinston Free Press telling of the results.

Walter Johnson says it’s true. If you doubt it, write to him, but Walter says Mrs. T.N. Coile of LaGrange, Route 3, has a Barred Rock cockerel that began crowing when only six weeks old. His picture was made for the Coile family album.

From the Cedar Rapids (Iowa) Gazette comes a clipping about how George Hyatt explains the current surplus of butter and milk. George, as you know, has succeeded John Arey as chief of the Dairy Extension Office…hard shoes to fill.

Joe Pou succeeds Dean Deane Colvard as head of the Animal Industry Department, and our livestock and dairy work continues in good hands.

Former Dean Hilton gave us his blessing in a goodbye talk at the dinner to the retiring Extension workers.

Bertie’s C.H. Kirkman Jr. has one faithful listener to his radio program over the Ahoskie Station. His dog greets the talk with barks of doubtful understanding.

“Took my wool there, saw it graded, got my money and came home,” was the laconic satisfaction expressed over the two assembling places organized for receiving wool at Winston-Salem and Washington, west and east.

P.H. Satterwhite is happy over his new quarters for Extension in Salisbury and says those who visit the new building now get “one stop” service from all the agricultural agencies in Rowan County.

The “Pug” Hollowell picnic at Rocky Mount was a success despite the previous calamatious hail storms in Nash. . . So was the renovation job on the Martin F. Cameron farm home in Hoke County, says Josephine Hall and the Sanford Herald. . . Nice Hereford tour over Alamance arranged by Jerry Bason. . . E.L. Topping swears Hyde County suffered from dry weather in May. . . T.J. Morgan of Union fulfilled a lifelong ambition and toured New England in mid-May. . . And wonders of wonders, Lem Laney is satisfied with one Extension conference. Lem said the Carolina Beach Conference was just what he would have ordered had he been responsible for it. . .  Congratulations to John Crawford, Walter Carroll, and the agents concerned for the booklets on McDowell and Rutherford Counties…Excellent publications. . . . And great tobacco meetings here in Raleigh and out on the Branch test farms to learn the truth about this great money crop.

Wednesday, July 11, 2012

Williams EH Club Looks Back on its 50th Anniversary, 1985

By Marzetta Moore, as published in the Jan.-March 1986 issue of Tar Heel Homemakers

Martin County Extension Homemakers Association clubs were started around 1918 as canning clubs and later were called Home Demonstration Clubs.

With many changes through the years, county clubs still support the infirmary at Jamesville School and the BMM Youth Shelter in Jamesville.

Williams EH Club, one of the oldest in the county and the oldest club of black members, supports these and other county projects. Members celebrated their 50th anniversary in October, 1985.

Three charter members of the club recognized at the anniversary program are Marie (Mrs. Jasper) Smith, Leda (Mrs. George) Duggins and Elenora (Mrs. John T.) Jones.

Mrs. Reo Mayo Jones, a member who had been ill for a number of years and who died in October 1985, was one of the founders of the club when it was called Bethlehem Home Demonstration Club. It was organized by Mrs. Cleopatra Tyner, the first black agent in Martin County, in 1935.

As a special project of the 50th anniversary, members purchased copies of the book And That’s The Way It Was—1920-1960, the 60-year history of Extension Homemakers in North Carolina, and donated it to Mary S. Gray Library and the Martin County Library in Williamston.

Four members, Beulah Bennett, Josephine Rogerson, Nellie Harrison and Ila Parker, attended the State Council meeting in October in Raleigh.

During the summer, Williams E.H. worked on making pillows, putting up pickles and quilting. One August day for 12 exciting hours, we took our annual trip—this year to the North Carolina Zoo at Asheboro with our families and guests.

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

Extension Workers Called Up for Military Service, 1941

From the June 1941 issue of Extension Farm-News. Pearl Harbor would be bombed on Dec. 7th, and the United States would declare war on Japan the following day. Germany and Italy declared war on the United States on December 11.

In the Army Now
Seven Extension workers have already been called to Army duty, six of them as reserve officers and A.O. Alford, assistant editor, as a National Guard officer. Several others who hold commissions are expecting a call momentarily.

H.E. Alphin, farm agent, and L.M. Stanton, assistant agent, were both taken from Nash County. J.C. Keith, assistant in Wake, and F.W. Reams, assistant in Halifax, were other agents called. The ag. Engineering office lost J.C. Ferguson, cotton gin specialist, and Joe Richardson, assistant engineer.

Alford went to Fort Jackson as a captain and has been promoted to major.

Monday, July 9, 2012

Polk County Women Help Organize Library, 1950

Found online at http://www.superpages.com/bp/Columbus-NC/County-of-Polk-Public-Library-L0501516182.htm

The Polk County Home Demonstration Clubs (now Extension Homemakers) and their County Council were the chief workers behind the formation of the Polk County Public Library and bookmobile.

For many years the club women had talked of the need for a county-wide library service, but it had never materialized. In 1950 a Columbus library was started under sponsorship of the Outlook Club with members J.C. Christopher, J.A. Feagan, C.O. Feagan, Ray Leopard, J.J. Rezat, Velma Swain, Grace Walker, H.E. Walker and James Vinson providing the leadership.

Other members of Columbus Garden, Dogwood Garden, and Home Demonstration clubs joined in the effort to establish library service for Columbus and surrounding areas.

Composed of approximately 4,000 square feet for public service and staff, the building presently houses 27,000 volumes and provides garage and working space for the bookmobile program. In recent years the library has averaged a circulation of 85,000 books to its 13,000 citizens and has provided films and other services comparable with other libraries of its size. The library has an active Friends group which contributes over 1,500 hours annually in service at the circulation desk and in the performance of other routines. Approximately 600 new borrowers have been added each year for the past several years.

Sunday, July 8, 2012

Drag Dirt Roads Each Time It Rains, 1916

From the July 1916 issue of The Southern Planter magazine

Drag Roads After Rains

Farmers living on sand-clay and dirt roads should take time after each rain to drag the road that runs along their property. This is done extensively in the northern states. It takes very little time for any person and yet the roads are kept in good shape.

The past winter has been exceptionally dry and the roads have been badly cut by traffic. When a rain comes this dust will wash out of the hole sand leave ruts in the road. If these are not fixed, the road will soon become impassable.

Saturday, July 7, 2012

From 'Around the State', July 1953

From the “Around the State” column in the July 1953 issue of Extension Farm-News

More than 2,000 persons turned out recently on the Taylorsville courthouse lawn to help celebrate the Alexander County Dairy Festival. More than 2,600 half-pints of milk and 3,000 squares of ice cream were consumed by the crowd. The county’s Grade A dairymen donated 145 gallons of milk and a local dairy processed and bottled it for free distribution at the annual event.

Paul Brookshire of Boone walked off with top honors in the recent Tri-County Lamb Show and Sale with his 120 pound Hampshire lamb. Edwin Shepherd of Alleghany was second prize winner, and Wendell Colvard of Ashe was third. Forty-five lambs from Alleghany and Watauga counties were shown and sold at the West Jefferson event.

The Mitchell brothers, of near Harrellsville, and their dog had a close brush with Brer Fox the other morning. As they approached a pasture at daybreak, they saw one of their dairy cows trying to hook a small animal. When they reached the pasture, they saw a small fox sitting outside the fence. It was foaming at the mouth and made no attempt to run. The dog smelled game and went after the fox. Instinct told the fox to run, then deciding it didn’t look right for a fox to be chasing a dog, reversed his direction again.

The fox didn’t scare, so the dog turned to his master for protection. The brothers, Thurmon, Linwood, and Joseph, sensing the fox was rabid, ran from the dog. Suddenly everyone was chasing everyone else.

The fox called off the fun and lay down. The Mitchell brothers secured a hogcatcher and slipped the noose over the animal’s head. A local veterinarian is testing Brer Fox for rabies and Rover is sulking under the porch.

Hadacol may not be like Duz, which “does everything,” but some folks will venture a wager over its possibilities. E.L. Topping, Hyde County farm agent, says that two Hyde farmers have tried it for bloat in cattle and say it works fine. Topping says Jack Pugh, farmer of the Nebraska community, found a cure in the patent medicine for his indigestion and decided to try it as a possible cure for bloat in his cattle. Pugh says it worked! Warren Watson, a well-known Hyde purebred Hereford breeder, heard of Pugh’s experience, tried Hadacol as a remedy for bloat and found it worked for his cows also.

Simon Gurganious, near White Lake, is propagating two new varieties of blueberries developed by the N.C. Agricultural Experiment Station. The new varieties are resistant to canker disease, which becomes a serious economic difficulty in some varieties. The varieties in bearing are Rancocus, Jersey, Cabots, Weymouth, June and Scammell.

T.S. Godwin, assistant county agent, is about ready to sell his fishing equipment. Godwin, visiting 4-H’ers recently in Yancey County, heard about a “horney head” fish of the younger sister of one club member had caught. The child went over to a small pool to show off her catch. Instead of coming up with the fish, she brought up a water moccasin, which had wrapped itself around a rock. The snake was killed before anyone was bitten, but Godwin thinks it may be a “sign for him to hang up his fishing gear.”