Tuesday, April 7, 2020

Annual Pay for White Teachers In North Carolina, 1917-18 School Year

From The University of North Carolina News Letter, Wednesday, April 7, 1920

Average Annual Salaries Paid White Common-School Teachers. . . Based on the 1917-18 report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, S.H. Hobbs Jr., University of North Carolina

State Average $323         U.S. Average $606

New Hanover $580.36
Durham $572.30

Mecklenburg $487.18
Scotland $484.54

Northampton $484.16
Buncombe $463.98

Edgecombe $458.92
Halifax $440.92

Gaston $438.34
Wake $433.82

Nash $433.80
Forsyth $431.97

Guilford $430.97
Richmond $429.66

Wilson $407.27
Vance $390.11

Lenoir $383.53
Harnett $370.87

Warren $368.87
Craven $362.83

Montgomery $359.41
Pasquotank $359.14

Pitt $348.77
Franklin $344.24

Robeson $342.82
Hyde $340.84

Hoke $339.40
Alamance $338.87

Duplin $336.19
Transylvania $336.19

Wayne $334.66
Lincoln $330.41

Anson $329.43
Rowan $328.77

Cumberland $325.81
Granville $324.65

Gates $319.58
Greene $316.42

Pender $314.16
Beaufort $313.78

Bertie $311.15
Rockingham $307.84

Jackson $304.19
Camden $300.59

Hertford $299.84
Currituck $295.00

Davidson $291.57
Haywood $289.57

Lee $289.69
Henderson $289.51

Chowan $288.38
Pamlico $287.62

Onslow $284.03
Columbus $284.00

Union $282.91
Martin $280.75

Johnston $280.40
Caldwell $279.79

Jones $276.82
Orange $276.44

Cabarrus $274.58
Brunswick $273.17

Swain $269.42
McDowell $269.19

Washington $267.17
Bladen $265.17

Surry $261.95
Burke $261.82

Wilkes $260.19
Sampson, $257.79

Chatham $255.66
Catawba $255.64

Person $254.59
Perquimans $252.73

Cherokee $249.56
Polk $ 247.51

Moore $245.00
Madison $243.12

Cleveland $242.92
Davie $241.09

Macon $240.43
Stanly $238.78

Caswell $238.78
Carteret $237.00

Randolph $236.76
Dare $230.42

Rutherford $229.69
Clay $222.73

Mitchell $215.57
Iredell $213.22

Tyrrell $211.19
Ashe $209.73

Yancey $209.40
Alleghany $201.76

Yadkin $200.22
Stokes $199.92

Alexander $194.24
Avery $189.33

Graham $188.06
Watauga $169.39

The Importance of Teachers in a Democracy, Dr Frank Crane, April 7, 1920

From The University of North Carolina News Letter, Wednesday, April 7, 1920

Trifling With Education

By Dr. Frank Crane

The United States was founded by people who were thoroughly convinced of the absolute importance of an educated citizenship as a basis for a permanent democracy.

If you are going to have a government by the people as well as for the people and the people you must take measures to develop the kind of people who are capable of governing.

If the people of America are to take over the business of kings into their own hands they must all be kings. They must not only know how to govern themselves, but they must learn the technique of government and also acquire the taste for government.

Along with citizenship and culture must go the will for politics, the willingness to assume the responsibilities of politics, the willingness to assume the responsibilities of politics and the training necessary thereto.

After 150 years of struggle against the inertia of tradition we are recognizing the citizenship of the woman. And it is of vital importance that the educated woman should be prepared to assume that citizenship.

Although we have always boasted of our educational facilities, we have nevertheless only been trifling with education. There is no doubt that the teachers of our country are underpaid, and that if we continue our present policy this teaching force is going to deteriorate more rapidly.

You cannot defy natural forces and it is natural for the more capable people to seek those avenues of employment that bring the most remuneration and give the most opportunity for liberal culture.

Dr. William Allen Neilsen, president of Smith’s College, says: “We are facing the annihilation of a profession.”

Teaching does not pay. Other professions do. The college graduate is entering the industrial and commercial fields. They become department managers or go into business for themselves; they take up chemistry or dietetics; they write or edit.

A New York professor writes: Most of the young men now coming into the teaching ranks are mediocre. Otherwise they would not be here. There is too much demand for them elsewhere. The world is being rebuilt and they are wanted. The universities cannot get them.

In view of all this it is difficult to conceive of a more pressing obligation upon our people than that of worthily endowing and supporting their institutions of learning.

Annie Oakley Entertaining Patients at Montrose Sanatorium, Raising Money for Eureka Farm Life School, April 7, 1920

From The Pinehurst Outlook, Wednesday, April 7, 1920

Annie Oakley

Annie Oakley has promised her help in entertaining the patients at the Sanatorium near Montrose, N.C. She will motor over on Thursday of this week for the purpose of giving a little exhibition of her shooting skills. Annie Oakley is always to be counted on in aiding worthy causes. It will be remembered that she recently gave an exhibition at the Gun Club for the benefit of the Farm Life School at Eureka, N.C., another Sand Hill institute of interest to visitors from the North, and by the sale of marked pennies, autographs, etc., raised considerably over $100 for the school.

Others who have contributed their services to entertain at the hospital are Mr. James Doyle, who recently staged for the patients a little vaudeville show of his own, and Miss Blake and Miss McKenzie, who sang a number of times and have been warmly received.

These little entertainments are under the patronage of Mrs. Leonard Tufts, who is indefatigable in good work of this kind throughout Moore and the adjoining Counties.

Monday, April 6, 2020

State Prison System Failing to Remake and Reform Prisoners, April 6, 1920

From the front page of the Monroe Journal, Tuesday, April 6, 1920

Chain Gangs, As They Are Now Conducted, Must Go. . . Our Present System of Punishment Must be Supplanted by a Real Effort to Re-Make Prisoners

By Observer
An acquaintance told me a very interesting story the other day. It was that of a young man, named Frank, who was sent to the prison at Blackwell’s Island, New York, for 12 months. He was under 20 years of age and his offense was that he had lead a riotous group of men in some kind of radical movement and was sentenced for disturbing the peace. Blackwell’s Island is the city prison, and is referred to tersely in New York as “The Island.” Sing Sing, the State prison on the Hudson above New York, is in police and criminal parlance, “Up the River.” The Tombs, another famous place for incarceration in New York, is the place where the city prisoners are put when first arrested and are waiting trial. Frank was a young fellow of great vitality, and a natural leader of men. He had known nothing to make him a leader in the better sense, and having observed certain things that he considered wrong, he took the way that most appealed to him for action and led a large crowd on a rampage. The police of course ran him in as they should have done; the courts found him guilty, and away he went to the Island and was forgotten. But he was an unusual fellow, bubbling over with life, with a sense of injustice somewhere, and a spirit of resentfulness that would have been commended under other circumstances. It was natural that he should get into trouble with the stolid oppressiveness of prison life. Nobody had taken the trouble to try to find out anything about the real inner life and thoughts of the young man. It was nobody’s business to try under the peculiarly foolish system which we have. The court was not to blame because nobody expected it to do anything but decide whether the prisoner was guilty and then decide how long he should serve, and this is did.

But fortunately for Frank and for the good of society, a man happened to come in contact with him who had other ideas. He saw something in Frank and knew something of his point of view. He became acquainted with him and showed himself a real not by giving him cigarettes and handing him some good tracts to read, but by trying to, and succeeding in, understanding him. He saw the latent power of good and the wonderful ability of leadership, and decided that the sensible thing to do was to try to enlist these abilities for the good of society instead of letting the prison experience turn them more strongly into enmity and bad leadership. He got the boy interested in study, and being connected with Columbia University, helped arrange for him to begin to study certain courses on the outside, and the same time getting him into a position where he could begin to learn an expert trade. In the meantime, working and studying, Frank got married. His wife happened to be made of the right stuff. The war came on. Frank refused to accept exemption either on the ground that he had been in prison or that he had a wife to support, either of which would have kept him out. “I want to go,” he said, “for if I die it will be in a good cause.” He went into the army and was prevented from going over only by the signing of the armistice. He came back and took up his work and kept up his studies and has already taken one degree from Columbia and is about to win a higher one.

The friend from New York who told me the story and who knows Frank, concluded by saying: “Get the April number of The Atlantic and you will see an article on the psychology of prison cruelty by Frank Tannenbaum. He is the young Frank of Blackwell’s Island.” So I have just got the magazine, that staid old publication that for nearly a hundred years has been the best exponent of American thought in the land. The article is one that any student of the human mind and human conduct might well be proud to have written. It is as clear an analysis of mental action and reaction as I have ever read. It lays bare the cause of the failure of prisons to make men better and shows beyond all doubt that the prison system we now have makes men worse and can not help having this result. It is philosophical, not bitter. It blames no individual, but shows that prison keepers are what they are because they can’t help it, and that prisoners do those things which they do because they must do them, not because they wish to be bad. I have read many an article on psychology, but never one which laid the axe more nearly to the tap root of human actions in certain lines than this. For years the best students of the subject know that prisons have been a failure in their purpose to reform men, but they have never seemed to fully understand why. The whole attitude of society towards offenders has been of doubtful standing for many years and even now are we beginning to know why. In his immortal book, Les Miserables, written in the sixties by Victor Hugo, gave in the history of his great hero, Jean Valjean, the cruel results always to be obtained from a malicious attitude on the part of society towards those persons who are called criminals. 

I have been lead to tell this story not only because of its own interest and value, but because of a resolution passed at the State Social Service’ Conference lately held at Goldsboro. That resolution declared that to make money out of the labor of prisoners beyond the cost of their keep was indefensible, that punishment for the sake of punishment—that is, as a mere expression of cruelty and revengefulness—must be supplanted by a real effort to help and remake the prisoner and turn out a good member of society instead of a hardened and revengeful man, and that chain gangs as now conducted in the State must eventually go out of business. There are wise acres who will sneer at this resolution as the product of dreamers because they are perfectly ignorant of what they are talking about, because they do not know what the real analysists of the human mind are saying, because they are unable to distinguish between a dislike for a wrong act and hatred for the man who has committed it, because they do not know that in many respects we are yet living under the rule of ideas that obtaining in the middle ages, in short, because they do not understand and prefer to be ignorant. Such people will say that all this is “nutty” and that you propose to “turn loose all the criminals and pin a badge of honor upon them.” But they say this also because they do not know and do not care and enjoy vindictiveness and self-righteousness more than they care to understand fellow human beings. It is all very interesting.

Ira Mullis Resigns as County Road Engineer; F.G. Henderson, Chairman of Road Commission, Also Steps Down, April 6, 1920

From the Monroe Journal, Tuesday, April 6, 1920

Mr. Mullis Resigns as County Road Engineer. . . In Letter to Mr. Henderson He Says Circulation of False Reports Makes His Work Too Unpleasant

The county commissioners, in session yesterday appointed Mr. G.B. Caldwell, a member of the road electorate, to succeed Mr. F.G. Henderson, chairman of the road commission, who handed in his resignation the latter part of last week. Mr. J.Z. Green, editor of the Marshville Home, who has been a bitter critic of the old commission, was appointed to fill the unexpired term of Mr. J.T. Green, who resigned several days ago as a member of the electorate.

Mr. Ira Mullis has likewise resigned, but will remain in charge of affairs until his successor can be appointed. A meeting of the electorate has been set for Wednesday, at which time a road commission chairman will be chosen. The selection of a new engineer to succeed Mr. Mullis will doubtless be made before next week.

The resignation of Mr. Mullis was sent to Mr. Henderson Saturday, and a copy of the letter which contained it follows:

April 3rd, 1920
Mr. F.G. Henderson, Chairman, Union County Road Commission
Monroe, N.C.
My dear Sir:

For some time the enemies of the good roads movement in this county have been at work undermining the workings of the organization by circulating false reports, exaggerating, and so hampering the work and making it so unpleasant that I feel that I cannot longer endure such a state of affairs. For this reason I hereby offer my resignation as Engineer and General Superintendent effective not later than 30 days hence, and as much earlier as the convenience of the work will permit.
You will recall that back in January I suggested to your Commission that a better position had been offered me and while I did not feel that I would be justified in offering my resignation after having served as Engineer and General Superintendent for less than a year, yet I gave you an opportunity to express your views in the matter. In reply to this the Commission assured me that they were of the same opinion as they were in July, 1919, when I was employed to take charge of the work.

I wish to thank the Commission individually and collectively for the support which has been given me and in this connection I would like to say that our work together has been satisfactory to me and I would not now resign were it not for the fact that at least two members of the Commission are resigning also. I also feel that I should than many of the people in the county for the co-operation which has been given us in many sections, and these I shall always remember with pleasure. Most of the members of the Electorate have also aided our work very materially in their respective townships and to these members I express my appreciation for their support.

In conclusion, let me say that I shall expect the Commission to have the books audited covering the month of March and such additional days as I may be responsible for the bills and accounts. I also feel that it is due me, the Commission, and the taxpayers that somebody like the Bureau of Public Roads, Washington, D.C., review the work which has been done in the past so that the parties above mentioned may stand on their merits or demerits as the case may be.

Very truly yours,
Ira B. Mullis

Caldwell Won’t Accept. . . His Health Won’t Permit Him to Give Retired Time, He Says

Mr. G.B. Caldwell, who was appointed a member of the county board of road electorate by the county commissioners to succeed Mr. F.G. Henderson, who has resigned, declared this morning that he would not accept. Having recently stood a serious operation, Mr. Caldwell feels that his health will not permit him to give the necessary time to the work.

Friday, April 3, 2020

Letter from Cliffside, N.C., Published April 1, 1920 in Forest City Courier

From the Forest City Courier, April 1, 1920

Letter From Cliffside, Revival, New-comers, Etc.

Cliffside, March 29—We are sorry, but it was impossible for “ye scribe” to send in any thing last week in the way of news notes.

J.W. McGinnis who recently moved to near Chase City, Va., was in town last week on business.

Mrs. C.D. Hughes returned Sunday from Charlotte where she had been for a few days with her little daughter, Sarah, who was being treated at the sanitarium. We are glad to note that Sarah is improving.

Miss Hattie Padgett, one of our efficient nurses, spent a few days last week in Asheville, and also her home at East Flat Rock.

W.B. Michaels of Hendersonville was here a few days last week the guest of the families of M.F. Hamrick and R.V. Bland.

Dr. B.M. Haynes of Spartanburg was in town one day last week. We are always glad to see Dr. Haynes as he is one of “our boys” and has made good in his profession.

John Long of Badin has been visiting here for a few days and will return to Badin Wednesday.

S.L. Thompson moved his family here last week from Henrietta and has entered upon his duties as overseer of the Finishing Plant of the Cliffside Mills, succeeding W.R. Thigpen who moved to Americus, Ga., a few weeks ago. We are glad to welcome Mr. Thompson and family to our town.

The friends of Miss Sudie Moore and Will Blanton were surprised to learn of their marriage, which was solemnized last Saturday afternoon at the home of W.J. Clontz. Rev. A.J. Burrus officiated in his usual graceful manner.

A large number of people here saw the airplane that passed and circled over town last Saturday afternoon. It is thought by several that the flyer was Lieut. Belvin Maynard, “The Flying Parson.”

The “Cliffside Renown Band” was scheduled to give a concert at the Park Sunday afternoon at 2:30 but on account of the rain they gathered on the balcony of the Cliffside Mills Office and rendered some good music, which was enjoyed by a large crowd who took shelter under the awnings of the stores and Library Building. The band is progressing under the able leadership of Director D.C. Cole.
J.B. Wilson of Gastonia visited home folks Saturday and Sunday.

A.C. Walker and wife of Shelby were the week-end guests at the home of W.J. Hoy. Mrs. Walker and little son will remain here for some time.

Jas. Blanton has accepted a position in the market of the Cliffside Mills Store.

Clothing for the Easter Parade, Forest City Courier, April 1920

Forest City Bargain Store
Efird's Department Store

Ads from the Forest City Courier, April 1, 1920