Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Prediction of What Lies Ahead for Rural North Carolina, July 1919

From the National Social-Work Conference, Atlantic City, June 5, 1919, as printed in The University of North Carolina News Letter, Chapel Hill, N.C., July 23, 1919

The Carolina Plan

By E.C. Branson

I have been asked to present to you the North Carolina Scheme of Rural development. The phrasing of my subject is not my own, which gives you a chance to acquaint me, if you will, of what a Cracker friends at home calls “toploitical assumacy.”

North Carolina is a rural state, like all the rest in the cotton and tobacco belts of the South. Our industrial bread-winners are a larger proportion of the entire population than in any other Southern state, but in 1910 they were only 133,000 all told, or less than one-seventh of the total number of persons engaged in gainful occupations, and more than half of these live under rural conditions in little trade centers and mill villages of fewer than 2,500 inhabitants. Our welfare problems are therefore mainly rural. Which means that for two and a half centuries we have been unaware of any social ills and unconcerned about them; or so until our present governor Thomas W. Bickett, in epoch making fashion, focused public thought upon their superlative importance.

Nearly exactly four of every five people in North Carolina are dwellers in the open country outside towns and villages of any sort or size whatsoever, only eight families to the square mile the state over, both races counted. And they dwell not in farm groups or communities as in the old world countries but in solidary, widely scattered farm homes, fewer than four families per square mile in 10 counties, and fewer than 17 per square mile in our most populous country county. Our country civilization is analyzable in terms of individual farmsteads, settlements, and neighborhoods. Compactly settled country communities conscious of common necessities and definitely organized to secure common advantages are few and rare. Country community is a term that means something in the Middle West, the North and East; it means little as yet anywhere in the South. We have such communities here and there, but they are infrequent, sad to say.

Our ills are not mainly those of congested population centers where, in Rousseau’s phrase, the breath of man is fatal to his fellows. We know little of the bewildering, baffling city problems of progress and poverty, magnificence and misery side by side. Our ills are mainly the social consequences of farming as an occupation in sparsely settled areas. Our social ills are the ills of solitariness, remoteness and aloofness. We are far removed from Socialism in any sense good or bad. On the other hand, we have always been but a hair’s breadth away from individualism, raw, raucous, and unorganizable. Both the best and the worst of my home state lies in the fact that too long it has been excessively rural and intensely individualistic—in business enterprise, in legislation and civic rule, and worst of all in religious consciousness. Our fundamental ill is social insulation and our fundamental task is local organization for economic and social advantage, for local self-expression and self-regulation in community affairs, and for generous, active civic interest in commonwealth concerns.

Such in brief are our problems, and they are the problems of some 40 odd millions of people in countryside America.

A Common Social Menace

In passing, let me call your attention to a social ill of fundamental sort that increasingly menaces our cities and country areas alike—namely, the steady decrease in the number of people who live in their own homes and till their own farms, the steady increase of landless, homeless multitudes in both our towns and country regions. These homeless people shift from pillar to post under the pressure of necessity or the lure of opportunity. They abide in no place long enough to become identified with community life, to acquire a proprietary interest in schools and churches, and to develop a robust sense of civic and social responsibility. Instable, irresponsible citizenship is a seed bed – a hot bed, if you please, -- for every sort of irrational social impulse.

Already three-fifths of all dwellings in the United States are occupied by tenants and renters; in Boston the ratio rises to 80 percent. Fifty-five million people in the United States spend their days and nights like poor Dante, going up and down somebody else’s stairs. In general the fatal law of our civilization seems to be that the more populous and prosperous an area becomes, the fewer are the people who live in their own homes and dwell unmolested and unafraid under their own vines and fig trees. I have yet to hear in this conference the discussion of any social ill that is not sequentially related directly or indirectly to home ownership by the few and land orphanage for the many. I shall hope to hear this foundation problem threshed out at length at some early day in the National Social Work Conference. It concerns both our city and country civilizations in fundamental sort.

In the Old North State

I was drafted into service, I presume, to give you a modest account—if such a thing is possible—of North Carolina’s brave attack upon the social problems of a rural people during the last four years.

The story is full of detail, but briefly it covers a common-school fund nearly doubled during the war, and a 50 percent salary increase for public school teachers as a legal requirement; an illiteracy commission with a support fund of $25,000 a year; a compulsory school attendance law together with a standard child labor law; $3.5 millions of bond money for enlarging and equipping our public institutions of learning and benevolence; nearly $250,000 a year for public health work, for medical and dental inspections of schools and the free treatment of indigent school children, and for the defense of our homes against the ravages of social disease; around $1,200,000 a year of local, state, and federal funds for agricultural education and promotion; a law sanctioning cooperative enterprise in general and in particular the best cooperative credit-union law in the United States, as a result of which we have more farm credit-unions than all the rest of the states combined; a state-wide cotton warehouse system based on the best law in the South; a public welfare law establishing a state welfare board with ample authority and support, and calling now for county welfare boards and superintendents, not optionally as in Indiana, Kansas, Minnesota, and other states, but manditorialy; a juvenile court and probation officer in every county, and in every city with 10,000 inhabitants or more; a rural township incorporation law and a state commission charged with rural organization and recreation; a state-wide social-work conference; rural social science studies and public welfare courses at the state university.

And so on and on. Thirty-five laws of economic and social import have gone on our statute books in four years, all of them directly or indirectly related to rural social welfare. It is a new kind of legislative activity in North Carolina and we have had more of such legislation during Governor Bickett’s administration than can be found in any hundred years of our history heretofore. It has been epoch making legislation and it ushers in a great new era in North Carolina. The Valley of Humiliation located between two mountains of conceit, as a Tarheel is accustomed to describe his state to Virginians and South Carolinians, has suddenly become the Valley of Decision that the prophet Joel saw in his dreams.

Rural Township Law

So many experiments are recently under way in North Carolina, that I have been at a loss to guess just which one of them the chairman of this section had in mind when phrasing my theme for me.

I have, however, a vague suspicion that she meant for me to discuss in particular our Rural Township Incorporation law—a law that makes it possible for the people of the county neighborhoods to create by popular vote the civic machinery necessary to self-expression and self-rule. It is the familiar town meeting of New England. It was indigenous to the democracy of a people compactly settled in communities in limited areas.

The idea has been slow to develop in the South because of our vast open spaces, and the settlement of our people in early times and at the present day in individual farmsteads. Our counties are large as a rule, many of them larger than the state of Rhode Island. Our townships are large. They are geographic divisions and administrative units in the political scheme of things. They are nowhere economic or social groups.

The net result has been a feeble sense of civic and an almost utter lack of social responsibility in our country counties. A perfectly natural result has been honest but inefficient and wasteful county government in the South, or so as a rule. The remedy for this sad state of affairs, as Thomas Jefferson clearly saw a hundred years ago, lies in organized community life and local discipline in righteous self-rule. It is essential to the perpetuity of American democracy and the lack of it threatens our entire civic structure, said he. Our rural Township Incorporation law is a tardy recognition of Thomas Jefferson’s wisdom.

The law is two years old and, because it rests upon our ancient rights of local option in static farm areas, township organization under this law is slow—so slow that only six communities in North Carolina are so far organized even on paper. It is a hopeful experiment of the right sort, and in time it will lead up into great results.

Social Welfare Laws

Lest you think me a Bourbon and not a democrat in political philosophy, let me hurry to say that I think of legislation as related to social inspiration and effort about as I think of the steel tubing in a Hudson River tunnel.

The tube of steel is indispensable to the permanency. So are law and civic machinery necessary to give form and permanency to social activity. Of course I believe that true democracy is the outward evidence of inner grace and worth; that it must be developed from within and cannot be imposed from without. But ours is a represented democracy. Our own representatives make our laws and, if they are unfit, sooner or later we freely elect new representatives and repeal obnoxious laws.

Such reform legislation as I have discussed is not dropped down from above like manna; it is grown out of the social soil under the hand of our chosen civic servants.

This I know—a vast deal of the gospel of cooperation, say, has gone to waste in America, because it has lacked fit legal sanction in state legislation. Cooperative credit unions, for instance, are rapidly developing in North Carolina because we have what other states lack—an effective cooperative enterprise law.

Our local welfare problems are being directly attacked by county juvenile courts, county public welfare boards, county probation, parole, and school attendance officers, and county factory inspectors charged with enforcing our child labor law. There is nothing new to you in these forms of social activity, except perhaps the fact that these county boards and officials have come into existence in North Carolina under state-wide compulsion and not by community choice as in other states.

It is highly significant that a rural, individualistic people has at last been willing to lay aside the sacred rights of local option and to choose instead the sacred rights of childhood as an imperious commonwealth concern. A full four-fifths of our children are country children and they have long suffered from the social inactivity of remote rural counties; not more nor worse in North Carolina than in similar counties in other states—say in Clinton and Franklin counties in New York state, or in Fayette county Pennsylvania, or in Windham county Connecticut, or in Aroostook county Main, or in the delta regions of South Illinois.

But at last the great common heart of North Carolina has heard the cry of her children, and as a state she has sounded a call to the colors of a grand army attack upon the enemies of childhood—upon poor schools in rural areas, upon bad health conditions, upon the benumbing drudgery and unrelieved loneliness of life in solitary farm homes. Nothing less than this will avail to explain the ground swell of legislative reform in North Carolina. When one stops to think it through, it becomes plainer than a pikestaff that our radical legislative reforms are sourced in a newly awakened, immense concern about the children of North Carolina.

The simple fact is that every really worth while economic and social activity is related to the supreme purpose of making ‘this dirty little spot in space that men call earth’ a safer and happier place for children to be born into and to grow up in. this is the very essence of the mind and message and meaning of Miss Lathrop to this generation of men and women the world around. May God multiply her kind 10,000 times over in every land and country.


Statesville Landmark Devotes Issue to Soldiers and Those at Home, July 1919

From The University of North Carolina News Letter, Chapel Hill, N.C., July 23, 1919

Iredell in the War

The Statesville Landmark of July 2 devotes its entire space to chronicles of Iredell County and her sons and daughters in the Great War.

It tells in detail what the home folks did. The little child who knitted a sweater for a soldier is honorably mentioned along with the selfless men who made the whole county ring with their fervor. 

It celebrates the hundreds who gave and gave and gave that Iredell’s quota of foodstuffs and of dollars might be raised and over-raised.

It gives a list full of the men who volunteered and the men who went to the colors no less cheerfully through the selective service draft—nearly 1,000 of them.

It gives a sorrowful paragraph to each the half hundred who laid down their lives in the service of their country.

It gives full accounts of the doings of the 105th Engineers, the 115th Machine Gun Battalion, the 30th and the 81st Divisions—of their valiant deeds as road builders, as Hindenburg line breakers, and their bravery on the Meuse and in the Argonne.

Iredell has here a definite record of her loyal devotion. When book history comes to be written there will be no room for doubt about the rightful place of Iredell people on the scroll of fame.

Iredell is gathering her war records together. So, too, is Wilson. What other Carolina counties have done as well? We should like to know in order to do homage to them in the News Letter.

It is work that should be done now. It is fitting work for the Daughters of the Confederacy and the Confederate Veterans. Or for women’s organizations, or for somebody. It should be done in every county in the state and it should be done at once.
--E.N.

Monday, July 22, 2019

H.D. Stewart Reflects on Europe, Criminal Nations, Caucasian Races, And Once He's Home, the Needs of Monroe, July 22, 1919

From The Monroe Journal, July 22, 1919

Dr. Stewart in England. . . Stumbles Across Many Familiar Union County Names. . . Advises Coming Generation to Discard Silk Hats and Spiketails for the Plow. . . Some of the Things Monroe Needs

By Capt. H.D. Stewart

Somewhere in England, June 10—Next to Almighty God himself righteous intelligent public sentiment is the greatest power on earth.

When an individual cheats, defrauds, robs or otherwise inflicts gross injuries upon his neighbor or his community he becomes a marked man. He and his family must pay the penalty. Public sentiment will drive him out. If his crime is great enough or his conduct against the peace and dignity of the commonwealth public opinion will crystalize on him and drive him out.

So it is with criminal nations.

Materialism and lust for power drew a veil over the eyes of the Kaiser so that he could not see out into the great world of humanity and understand the ways of public opinion. So he and his nation are condemned. They have departed from the Bible and from God. Who can ever trust them in anything again? Nobody; no nation.

The bar of public opinion is terrible in its judgments. Only the wrath of God surpasses it.

The reflections of the dawn of world-wide democracy are already appearing in the East foretelling the peace and brotherhood of the world.

England

England is a beautiful hilly country with thousands of fine cattle and sheep. The woolen industry is very large. The dogs are all muzzled and only the best breeds may be kept at all. This arrangement protects the people against rabies and the sheep against being killed by stray dogs.

England’s coal and iron resources are inexhaustible. Her hills and mountains are full of these products. But the country is too small to feed herself. She must be fed from outside. Her people are very fine, and are intellectual, thought spiritual. They are becoming more democratic every day. They are becoming tired of kings and queens. The English soldiers, many of whom I saw and talked to, say they are becoming very tired of the House of Lords, that hereditary body of law makers corresponding with our United States Senate in legislative power, but not in brains and ability.

Two nights ago I attended grand opera at the famous Covent Garden theatre. They were playing French and Italian operas. Melba appeared as Marguerite in Gunod’s Faust.

In strolling about over London the study of names was very interesting to me: Houstons, Heaths, Ashcrafts, Simpsons, Marshes, Williamses and things. The Tons are all English, the Crafts are Anglicized Teuton. The Blivenses are Anglicized Dutch. The Sons are originally Norwegian, the Sens are Dains, the Macks Scotch and Irish. The dark-haired Simpsons and Johnsons and things are English, while the blondes are Norwegian. The red-headed Stevenses are Irish, while the dark-haired ones are English.

The Prefixes O’, Mc, Bar, etc. mean son of. The suffixes son, sen, etc. son of.

While walking through a Parish churchyard in an English village reading the epitaphs on the weather-beaten tombstones I came across one which read thus: Interred here lies the body of John Cornish, who died in 1757 at the age of 32 and left a wife and four children, two boys and two girls, to get along the best way they could. The widow married again and so did the four children. All lived happily after John died and the whole family, including the second husband, landed right around that same old tombstone. The second husband was the last to die—in 1822. I think John killed himself drinking.

It has been observed that there are blonds of four different natural extractions in Europe. Most of the Irish are of the blonde type. Most of the Teutonic peoples are of the blonde type, with blue eyes and light hair. Many of the Scotch are blonds. But it is not far across the English channel or the German seas to Scandinavia. The Scotch are a mixture of Gauls, Nords, Scandinavians and Romans.
The Norwegians are largely blue-eyed and light-haired. So are the Danes. The Swedes are of two principal types—light hair and blue eyes and dark hair, fair skin and blue or grey eyes.

Each of these nations has three general types.….

The blue-eyed and light-haired or red haired people have the most energy, initiative and fire.
To understand this world war well one must acquire a good working knowledge of the four different branches of the Caucasian race—their languages, history, literature, religions, churches, industries, climates, ideals and governments.

This war has been called a religious war—a conflict of religious ideas and principles. It has also been called a war between capital and labor—between those who collect the wealth of the world (all of which belongs to the Creator himself) and are greedy to acquire it all, and those who produce the wealth, but cannot hold it on account of ignorance, lack of organization and lack of opportunity and facility.

Again it has been called a war started, conducted and fostered by military leaders seeking power, money, gain, self-promotion and self-acquirement, and urged and encouraged by moneyed interests, speculators, war contracts, and frenzied financiers, all of whom in their insane, infidelic greed are willing to make money (as if there were no heaven, no hell, no judgment for the quick or the dead) out of mothers’ tears, mothers’ broken hearts; the blood and body of mothers’ sons; the ignorance, poverty and misery of the masses. The militarist is a dangerous non-producing consumer and master of wealth. Intelligent public sentiment must get his number and call him.

In this time of worldwide crisis it is clearly the duty of the pulpit, the press and the school teacher or college professor to create and to crystalize a righteous, intelligent public sentiment and action against the forces of evil and for that which is right. The great university professors whose life and thought are confined to limited channels should cease to teach materialism, agnosticism and extreme science, and try to stamp the character of a christian civilization upon the personalities of the many young men who come under their influence.

Back Home Again

I was just sitting here thinking about the amount of time that is wasted in frivolous conversation, telling smutty jokes and squirting tobacco juice. There has never been such a thing as a scarcity of labor. There is a scarcity of willingness to labor.

Urgent Needs of Monroe

Monroe needs a park and a band, an auditorium; a library; an information bureau and advertising bureau; an intelligent non-political government; a public market and a market day, with frequent inspection; a union of all churches and all classes to accomplish the ideal and the purpose of making Monroe and Union county the most habitable spot in the world.

Monroe needs last but not least 15 funerals and 11 fires. (15 funeral homes and 11 fire stations??)

One day I was counting them up and looking over the field, and one of my friends said, “Doc, you ought to be one of those funerals yourself.” That put me to thinking. I became quiet all at once. Of course my friend was joking. The question then came to me, Have I done my full duty toward my community, my city, my county, my state and my nation? Have I just been passing through?

Now I want to say one more thing to the Union county boys who are acquiring college educations. You are not obliged to become a professor or a doctor or lawyer or preacher or some other non-producing consumer of wealth. Back to the farm! You may become the germ of a great community development as Coker did in South Carolina.

It is no disgrace and no sin for a doctor of philosophy to follow the plow.

A high hat, a cane and a long tail coat are no sign of a gentleman; of culture and refinement. They may be attached to a politician, a dancing master, a horse-racer or some other doubtful personage. Who knows?
--H.D. Stewart

Oswald The Goldfish Has Died, Mourning Lack of Beer, July 22, 1919

From The Monroe Journal, July 22, 1919

An Obituary

By Luke McLuke

Oswald Fish is dead. Oswald was merely a goldfish, but he was Luke’s friend and companion. For nine years he swam around in a large bowl and kept us in a good humor by his antics. He was the last of a family of 10. All of his brothers and sisters died off some seven years ago, and Oswald lived alone. He wasn’t a fancy goldfish. He was about half sucker minnow and half sardine, but he was a cheerful cuss, a boon companion and a faithful friend. He never complained until the last, and took things as they came like a real optimist. Prohibition killed Oswald. One day, some six years ago, Luke accidentally slopped a beer out of a glass was standing over Oswald’s bowl. Oswald dashed up to the surface and tasted the beer. He sucked up every drop he could find and hunted eagerly for more. We gave him a little more. Oswald drank it. Then he pulled off a three-ring circus all by himself. He looped the loop, stood on his head, stood on his tail and three triple somersalts. Every day after that we saw that Oswald received his daily ration of beer. And Oswald displayed his gratitude by pulling off his three-ring circus. But Prohibition put an end to beer, and two weeks ago we gave Oswald his last drink. Every day since he has tried to attract our attention so that we would give him his beer, but we had none to give. Poor Oswald sulked at the bottom of the bowl for days at a time and would not be comforted. He would not eat, he would not drink water. Yesterday morning we found him dead. The water in the bowl had turned to salt. He had wept so much that his tears turned the water into brine and thus caused his death. He died of thirst.


Sunday, July 21, 2019

Children Younger Than 14 Need Permission to Work in Many Jobs Off the Farm, July 22, 1919

From the Monroe Journal, July 22, 1919

Boys Under 14 Can’t Work Without Permission. . . That Is, in Certain Occupations

Mr. F.H. Wolfe, county welfare officer, in a statement to The Journal, stated that he had already begun enforcing section 5 of the new child labor law, which provides:

“No child under the age of 14 years shall be employed, or permitted to work in or about or in connection with any mill, factory, cannery, workshop, manufacturing establishment, laundry, bakery, mercantile establishment, office, hotel, restaurant, barber shop, boot black stand, public stable, garage, place of amusement, brick yard, lumber yard, or any messenger or delivery service, except in cases and under regulations prescribed by the commission hereinafter created.”

“Farming, if you will notice,” said Mr. Wolfe, “does not come under the above classification. Farmers, therefore, do not have to worry about securing permission for their boys under 14 to work. 

All others, however, who do come under the classification must either quit working at once or appeal to me for exemption. If possible, and consistent with the child’s welfare, this exemption will be given.”

A number of people have already applied for exemption for their boys. One of these was an old negro at Waxhaw who wanted his boy to work in a barber shop until school opened. Permission was given by Mr. Wolfe.


Moonshiners Steal Aberdeen Church's Copper Roof to Make Stills, July 22, 1919

From The Monroe Journal, Tuesday, July 22, 1919

Neighborhood Comment

A few years ago the Pages built a magnificent memorial church at Aberdeen. The best of material was used in its construction, the roof being covered with copper shingles, and it has been since the pride of the community. But now it is almost roofless, and the wealthy Pages will have to pass out a little more coin for a new one. It won’t be a copper roof, either, though there is no doubt that it is the best roofing material made. Copper is in too much demand for moonshining purposes these days to be exposed even on the roof of a church, for that’s the demand which the first roof went to fill. Capt. W.L. Howie is our authority. He was in Aberdeen the day after the moonshiners stole half of the roof. That’s even worse than the sin of that old darkey who used to store liquor, which he kept for sale in the basement of the Monroe Baptist Church.

-=-

Messrs. Lee and Crawford Griffin, when they conducted a sales stable in Wadesboro years ago, had to contend with a certain inveterate loafer. This man, running true to his tribe, had another besetting sin. He imbibed too freely and too often of the flowing bowl. This sin also made him an added burden on the Griffin brothers because he always chose their stables in which to sleep off the effects of the spree.

Their patience exhausted, the Messrs. Griffin began to tax their ingenuity to rid themselves of the loafer, who often disturbed them in their trading by his lusty snoring. Hints or reprimands intended to impress the man with the undesirability of his presence had not the least effect. To all intents he was a parasite contended with all his days.

It happened that a furniture store in Wadesboro rented some vacant space in the Griffin brothers’ stable to store its surplus goods. One day when the store unloaded some coffins in this space the Messrs. Griffin conceived of a plan that eventually rid the place of their parasite. The next time this old man staggered to the barn to sleep off his booze they immediately got into action. Selecting a nice, glass-plated coffin from the furniture stock, they placed the now unconscious man in it. The folded his hands, first placing n them a bouquet of flowers; put a coin over each eye, and scattering flowers all about his body, closed the lid.

Two hours later, from a point of vantage, they watched the terrible awakening. The first sign of returning consciousness was when the man began to flutter his right eye-lid. The coin swung in the balance, hesitated a little, then fell. A dazed look spread over the man’s face. As yet he could not grasp the meaning of his surroundings. The left eye began to move a little, and the other coin went the way of the first. The scent from the flowers woved the old fellow to glance in the direction of his hands, which still held the bouquet. His predicament began to dawn upon him. Glancing upward he managed through the rays of light that fell downward, to learn without a doubt that he was housed in a coffin. An agonized scream rent the air, and a sound of falling glass was heard as the man dived upward throught he glass front of the coffin. Neither did he hesitate on reaching the floor; but he went out the door, and he was never seen again back at the stables.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Quebec Home Demonstration Club Opens First Community Cannery in Transylvania County, July 1919

From the Brevard News, July 18, 1919

First Community Cannery in County

On last Friday night a meeting of the Quebec Home Demonstration Club took place at Quebec. The meeting was conducted by Mr. Lawrence and Miss Cassidy for the purpose of establishing a community cannery under the auspices of the club. The enterprise is to be started at once. The present scheme contemplates only local canning this year with a daily capacity of about 1,000 cans, but it is being planned with a view to expanding in the near future into a complete commercial cannery with a daily capacity of not less than 5,000 cans. The plans and specifications have been prepared by Miss Lula Cassidy, County Home Demonstration Agent, assisted by Mr. C.D. Matthews of the State Department of Agriculture.


Brevard Children Declare War on Flies, July 1919

From the Brevard News, July 18, 1919

Brevard to Have Fly Campaign

By Lula M. Cassidy, County Home Demonstrator

While the city authorities are having a clean-up campaign, we want the children of the town to help us get rid of the flies. Every child in Brevard under 15 years of age may enter this contest. Both moving picture houses of the town have offered tickets as prizes in this contest. The child who kills 300 flies and brings them to the Home Demonstration Office in the U.D. Library before July 27 will receive a ticket to one of the local moving picture shows. The child who wins the largest number of tickets will also get a cash prize. Any method may be used in catching the flies; but they must be caught by the person who competes for the prize without help.

The contest will open next Monday morning following a special sermon to children which will be preached on “Flies” in the Brevard Methodist church by Rev. W.E. Poovey on Sunday morning.

This contest will last one week and will close Saturday, July 26th at 6 p.m.

Each child who takes part will be helping to make Brevard a more beautiful and more healthful town to live in.


County Welfare Board to See That Children Attend School, Work With Juvenile Court, July 1919

From the Brevard News, July 18, 1919

Transylvania to Have Welfare Board

The last legislature having created the offices of County Board of Public Welfare and Superintendent of Public Welfare to be filled by the County Board of Education and Commissioners in joint session, the aforesaid board entered into the election of a county Superintendent on July 7 and as provided for a small county, the board elected A.F. Mitchell, Superintendent of Public Instruction and agreed to provide an assistant when necessary in order to carry out the provisions of the law.

The County Superintendent of Public Welfare is to serve without pay, save that the aforesaid boards are to pay his assistant for the necessary time, presumably for only the period of the compulsory school law which covers the length of the entire session.

The County Board of Public Welfare, which is to advise with the Superintendent of Public Welfare, is composed of the following:--Rev. J.C. Seagle, Chairman; Miss Annie Gash, Secretary, and Rev. J.R. Hay. The new officers are part of the machinery of the juvenile court of this county of which Mr. N.A. Miller is judge. The juvenile court has the enforcement of the compulsory school law or in its jurisdiction among other very important matters. The attention of the reader is called to the act of the last legislature creating the aforesaid offices. The enforcement of the compulsory law is a sure thing now under the juvenile court and Superintendent of Public Welfare.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Tribute to Private Albert Ayscue, Whose Death in France Was a Great Loss, July 1919

From The Franklin Times, Louisburg, N.C., July 18, 1919. If you can find a copy of this newspaper, you can see a nice photo of Private Ayscue on the front page.

Private Albert G. Ayscue

Private Albert G. Ayscue was the son of the late Joseph J. Ayscue of Alert, Franklin County, N.C., who gave his life in France October 10th, 1918. Private Albert Ayscue was born in Franklin County near Alert July 27th, 1889 and lived there with his people until he reached the age of 21, which afterwards worked for wages around Alert, while he was working with Mr. R.T. Tharrington of Alert post office at the time he received his call. 

Albert was a man of unusual ambition. He was industrious and a boy of great success to his country. He lived a quiet, sober life and his daily walk was that of a true gentleman. He was useful to his country. He united with Mountain Grove Baptist church about 10 years ago, which he was a faithful Christian until he was called away and a faithful scholar in his Sunday School at Mountain Grove. 

He went to camp Jackson, Columbia, S.C., where he completed his training for overseas duty and in May, 1918, he sailed for France, where he went in regular service. He was in several hard battles and went over the top several times. He was a brave soldier and died a noble death in that unknown country. His death was a great loss in his home and his country. 

He leaves an aged mother, four sisters and four brothers and lots of friends and relatives to mourn their loss. All who knew him loved him and we hope he is now resting in that great and unknown place of rest. May the Lord guide and comfort the bereaved mother, sisters and brothers to prepare to meet him where there will be no parting for ever more.
--A Friend


Foolishness of Suffragettes and Why Woman Shouldn't Want the Vote, July 18, 1919

From the Brevard News, Friday, July 18, 1919

Bohancus on the Job Again

Editor, Brevard News:

Poor old Bohancus, He has been smote “hip and thigh” back and front until he looks like an old rooster that has gone off and gotten his head pecked and his tail feathers all pulled out. As might be said, he has been hen pecked.

The “woman with a club” A.E.R. and a “Visitor” has picked my article to pieces and I will say in the language of Festus, “Thou art beside thyself. Much learning doth make thee mad.” I feel my inability to answer an article that would do credit to Susan B. Anthony or Dr. Anna Howard Shaw, and I shiver to think of the consequences that are to come hereafter.

The woman with the club says, “Now I would ask Bohancus, (such a penful, that name)”. I want to first assure her that I have a legal right to that name, if I want it, as I know of no one who is the possessor of it, and the name is not copyrighted.

I certainly do admit that the way any good woman’s husband or son votes is of vital interest to her and her children and country and the majority of women are as interested as men. But give them the ballot and men lose respect for them, and a majority of the men do not have much respect for a suffragette anyway, if you will remember the way they have been treated in Washington, London and elsewhere. Their own mannikins (way it was spelled) must not respect them very much, or they wouldn’t let them lie in jail and go on hunger strikes or be beat up by burly policemen, and have the hose turned on them. If I were the proud possessor of a suffergette (way it was spelled in paper, perhaps intentionally misspelled?) for a wife and she were treated that way, I sure would get my gun and go gunning after the fellow who mistreated her.

The cooking question, pot hooks and pans, the preparation of food and raising children, along with corner influences was not named in my article, and therefore is out of place in the reply of the woman with the club. I know nothing about raising children, but I have wielded a frying pan some little.
She asked the question: “Why would not men respect women who vote?” I will answer, for the same reason that a rooster flogs an old hen for crowing. I don’t know about the drunken galoots being oppressed to equal suffrage to the man. I have not consulted any of them about it. I will make it stronger than I did before. You will have some drunken women there also. For as long as water rises on the mountain sides and runs down into the valleys below, that long we will have to contend with blind tiger liquor. That is one thing that can’t be voted out.

And I will admit that the women of the slums have been driven out of our North Carolina Cities to the third rate hotels for new habitations.

I have not gone to the trouble to take a straw vote on Equal Suffrage but I do know that some of the strongest women of the State and Nation are against it.

This last shot I have at the woman with the club is to displace men who don’t do their duty in office. I would like to see the man who could hold office longer than one term who has not done his duty.

Now comes little “A.E.R.” with her smiling countenance and words of cheer to the down trodden creatures, and with the cries of the oppressed sounding in her ears as the “voices of many waters.” As to her seven questions.

1st, As to “Why Bohancus?” That is out of place, irrevelent and doesn’t concern the question of Equal Suffrage.

2nd, Yes drunken galoots are brought to the polls and voted, and when women get the vote, drunken wenches will be brought up and voted like little women.

3rd, The volume where you will find that Sampson’s several locks were woven in the web is in the Book of Judges, and you will find it by dusting off your family Bible and looking for it. And you will also find that the woman Delilah was sore on him and he told her to have his several locks shaved off, and then they were severed.

4th, Thru woman’s influence, good men and bad men want to do something, for the same reason that the boy wants to do something to make himself look big in the eyes of some girl.

5th, No, the style of dress doesn’t make any difference in the physical effort of the hands in placing into a box any slip of paper or ballot. And some men would be better suited with their mannikin’s breeches on than wearing the old style out of place dress they have to wear for the sake of conventionality.

6th, The poodle dog does not have any “logical connection with women voting.” But in times pass I have seen poodle dogs associated with the higher class of women, women who want to vote and don’t have anything much to do but keep the town straight and lead a poodle dog away from temptations. Therefore I connect them with wearing breeches, voting, etc. I will join you in your prayer to the Lord “the power to protect your child.”

7th, The officers of Transylvania County have mostly all been reelected to office. They have undoubtedly done their duty or fooled a lot of people. But that is not for one to say. The people are the judges.

As to brother Morgan, I will not pass him by because of his being a she man, I am glad to see that he upholds the right and will try to make this world better than it was when he came into it, and found it such a deplorable place. I can’t refrain from quoting a little piece of Burns, for his own and my benefit.

“I wad some power a gifty gie us
That we could see ourselves as ithers see u.
Twa fra many a blunder free us
And foolish notions.”

With my kindest regards and malice towards none. I am the only and original Bohancus.

Transylvania Solder Boys Welcomed Home, Boyd Ross, Fair Turner, B.L. Glazener, Monroe Wilson Remembered, July 1919

From the Brevard News, July 18, 1919

Wednesday Was Truly Transylvania’s Big Day. . . Transylvania Welcomes Her Heroes with Greatest Celebration in History

Welcome home was the dominating features in Transylvania County’s celebration of the return of her sons who went to the world war. The celebration which was held here last Wednesday stands without precedent in the annals of this county. Everybody came to town early in the day. Everybody stayed late, and everybody was happy and determined to show the Transylvania soldier boys who glad their neighbors, kinfolk, and friends were to have them home again. While the boys have been returning for several months past, this was the first opportunity the people have had to give them a real welcome home, and Transylvania, from the youngest to the oldest, took advantage of the occasion. 

The day was observed as a holiday throughout the county. Business was virtually suspended by all the business houses in Brevard and other towns in the county. In the early part of the morning people began to arrive from all sections of Transylvania. Those who had for several days been eagerly consulting local weather prophets were happy on Wednesday morning to find the sky clear and all sings indicating that the weather was the regular Brevard brand. The morning was ideal. It was just the kind to make people feel like celebrating if they had the chance. Transylvania had the occasion and the day so they proceeded to make good at celebrating.

Interest centered first on the parade which took place at 11 o’clock. Every military, patriotic, fraternal organization in the county was represented in the line of march. There were in the parade depicting Transylvania’s service in the war a number of floats. Among the first of these was the memorial to the Transylvania boys who died while in the service of their country. Three of these, Boyd Ross, Fair Turner, and B.L. Glazener, died in camp, and Monroe Wilson died of wounds received in battle.

It is estimated that more than 1,500 people were in the parade, which led by the Bagdad Temple brass band, marched thru the principal streets of the town last Wednesday morning in honor of the Transylvania soldier boys home from the world war. The parade was formed in front of the Franklin Hotel and passed thru Main Street, Oakdale Avenue, Probarte Avenue, and Railroad Street, to the Station. From the Station the line of march led by way of Depot Street, Caldwell Street, and Main Street to the Court House.

The floats and the long column of marchers made a fine showing to the hundreds of people who filled the sidewalks and every available viewpoint on Main Street. Transylvania’s heroes of the world war who marched in uniform were greeted by storms of applause form the spectators at every turn. The parade was interrupted by a shower of rain which didn’t last long however and although the marching throng did not return to the square in military formation, the crowd was there by 1 o’clock with keen appetites and enthusiasm undampened. The housewives of the county had been called upon to make the Transylvania solder boys forget the days of hard tack and bully beef and right nobly did they respond to the call. There was a multitude to be fed and there was enough fried chicken and plenty of ham sandwiches to feed the population of half a dozen counties the size of Transylvania.
The afternoon was given over to games and athletic contests which had been planned by the committee in charge of the welcome home celebration. Every feature of the day’s exercises was carried thru without a hitch, and expressions of satisfaction and pleasure were heard on every hand as the crowds on the streets began to disperse at the close of the day’s celebration. And it was a celebration that will linger a life-time in the memories of those who had the good fortune to take part in welcoming home Transylvania’s soldier boys.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Women, Men, Girls Impressed at Iceless Refrigerator Demonstration, July 18, 1919

From The Franklin Times, Louisburg, N.C., July 18, 1919

Home Demonstration Department

The Community Club meeting at Winston, the Woman’s Club meeting at Roberts and the Boys and Girls’ Farm and Home Club meeting at Mitchiners were exceptionally good last week.

About 30 men, women and girls attended the Winston meeting. A great deal of interest was shown in the iceless refrigerator demonstration. This club does splendid canning each summer. It is interesting to know that the men do as much of the work and take as much interest in each program as the women.

Every member was present at the Roberts Club. An iceless refrigerator demonstration was given here. After the club meeting, all members visited Mrs. Bob Roberts to see her side porch. It is an attractive summer living room. No more beautiful flowers are to be seen than the ones arranged on this porch. Mrs. J.J. Timberlake is the enthusiastic president of this club. Sometime ago she was having her home painted. She wished it completed by a certain date so she painted the blinds and a large portion of the lower story. It takes just such workers as she to make successful leaders of community organizations.

Maggie Phelps, a canning club girl of the Mitchiners club, gave the peaches she intended canning to a sick club member of her club. She said, “I had rather do without them in the winter if the sick child can enjoy them now.”
-=-

An Irish potato cut in half and dipped in ashes is splendid to clean fruit or egg stained steel or silver knives and forks and other silver.
-=-

A “Baby Booth” and a “Home Convenience Booth” have been arranged for the County Fair. Last year, B. Altman & Co. sent down a complete outfit for babies’ wear and model furnishings in white for a nursery. As the fair could not be held last fall these articles will be exhibited this year. It will be one of the most attractive booths of the fair.
I hope every woman in the county will see the booth filled with home conveniences. The Carolina Power and Light Co. is going to install a Delco light system, a washing machine, wringer, large roller iron, hand iron, churn and vacuum cleaner will be attached, showing some of the most useful labor saving devices a country woman can have in her home.

After Study Shows It Would Cost Louisburg Less to Generate It's Own Electricity, Town Buys Oil Engine Outfit, July 18, 1919

From The Franklin Times, Louisburg, N.C., July 18, 1919

Buys Oil Engine Outfit. . . Expects to Have New Plant Installed in About 60 Days

The board of Town Commissioners met in special section last Friday afternoon to hear the report from the committee that had visited Southport and some other places on a tour of investigation of the efficiency, cost and satisfaction of the oil engine that had been proposed for the power plant for Louisburg. Their report was very favorable, showing that Louisburg could make a big saving over its present cost of operating and to such an extent that it would be unwise to consider any proposition from the Carolina Power and Light co. Whereupon a motion in proper form prevailed purchasing the oil engine outfit, after the contract and guarantys had been read and examined. This outfit consists of a 160 horse power direct connected engine and alternator, mortised chain-driven excitor, 125-horsepower united, unit for day run, one 100-horse-power motor driven fire pump, and 10 horse-power motor driven, river pump, and one 25 gallon motor driven pump for pumping oil to the power house, and a 10,000 gallon storage tank at a cost of $27,000. The necessary preliminary financial arrangements have been made and the plant is ordered out. This plant is equipped for 24-hour service which the Commissioners contemplate installing when the new plant is started up. One unit of the present steam plant will be held in readiness as an auxiliary, until a satisfactory sale can be found for it, when it will, no doubt be replaced with another unit of the large oil engine outfit.

In doing away with the truck, shavings, coal, and firemen, the Commissioners expect to make a saving of at least $500 a month, with a splendid probability of $700 or more.

The citizens of Louisburg who want electric current during the 24 hours for other than lighting purposes are advised to take the matter up with Supt. Hill that necessary arrangements may be made so that when the new plant is put into use they can avail themselves of the all-day current.

With all the available information in hand there is no question that the present Board of Commissioners are to be congratulated upon making the best business deal for the town it has experienced in many years and there is hardly any doubt but that it will prove even more so in the future.

It is now expected that the new plant will be installed, ready for running, within the next 60 days.

In Other Business

It was ordered that all persons with cotton on hand May 1st must list same at $100 per bale.

Ordered that notice be served on C.T. Stokes, Allen Bros., G.W. Ford and W.A. Perry Jr. to appear before the Board today for failing to list cotton.

Upon motion the board received all tax lists, with the understanding if anything is wrong with any of the respective tax, listers will correct same without extra compensation.

It was ordered that H.A. Matthews property be reduced to $2,240 and J.A. Spencer’s property be raised to $2,240, both being the Spencer land.

Ordered that oaths of T.W. Watson and Hugh W. Perry be received and filed.

G.W. Ford was before the Board in regard to listing cotton. The matter was deferred to next regular meeting.

All township road trustees were ordered to make reports to the Board of County Commissioners.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Vance County Sheriff Bell Resigns, Disappears, and Books are $45,757.83 Short, July 17, 1919

From The Review, High Point, N.C., July 17, 1919

Books of Missing Ex-Sheriff Short. . . Chairman of Vance County Board of Commissioners Makes Public Report. . . Shortage Apparently Large. . . After Tending His Resignation More Than a Week Ago the Official Has Not Since Been Seen

Henderson—An apparent net shortage of $45,757.83 in the accounts of former Sheriff J.E.C. Bell was reported to Chairman George A. Rose of the Vance County Board of Commissioners by the firm of Scott, Scharnley and Company, certified public accountants, for several weeks.

The report was made public at a meeting of the board of commissioners and created quite a sensation here. Sheriff Bell, soon after tendering his resignation a week ago, left the city and has not been seen here since.


Ed Farlow Shot To Death, Marvin Harris In Jail For Deed, July 17, 1919

From The Review, High Point, N.C., July 17, 1919

Randolph County Is Scene of Killing. . . Ed Farlow Is Dead and Marvin Harris Is Being Held Without Bond

Ed Farlow is dead and Marvin Harris is being held in the Randolph county jail without bail as a result of a homicide near Mount Gilead church, 12 miles south of this city, and in Randolph county last week. There were no eye witnesses to the homicide and the only information procurable comes through the man held under the serious charge. The shooting resulted, it is stated, from a controversy arising over a trade of mules by the two men, which was consummated several days ago. Later Farlow went to Harris and secured his original property, but did not get the difference of $2.50 in cash paid at the time of the first exchange. Farlow returned to the home of Harris and stated that he was going to have the $2.50 or Harris and that it really differed very little with him as to which he got.

Farlow is said by Harris to have made a motion toward his hip pocket as though to draw a revolver, whereupon Harris turned and entered his house. His shotgun was removed from other the door and Harris returned with it to the yard and emptied the contents of one barrel into the body of Farlow. Death is said to have resulted instantaneously. Harris was taken into custody by Randolph authorities within a short while after the shooting and was taken to Asheboro and lodged in jail.

Harris, who several years ago is said to have suffered from a mental depression, is a member of a family of prominence throughout the section, and it is stated that he was held in high esteem by the people of the Mt. Gilead community Farlow was a singing teacher and made his home in the same community. He, too, enjoyed a good reputation, it is stated

Local News Around High Point, N.C., July 17, 1919

From The Review, High Point, N.C., July 17, 1919

Personal and Otherwise

Horace Wright has returned from overseas where he has been for the past 15 months.

Herbert Beeson is back safely from overseas.

Albert Freeze is back at home again after a visit to France to save the world.

Former Supt. Thornwell Haynes is now minister plenipotentiary.

High Point won the second game with Leaksville Thursday, score 9 to 0. In the game Saturday with Burlington the home boys won again, by the same score, 9 to 0. Quite a popular score it seems.
Have your potatoes got warts on them? If so get in touch with the agriculture department at Raleigh, N.C., or Washington, D.C.

Mrs. Chas. L. Amos’ mother died in Reidsville, Va., last week.

Miss Nellie Muse is at home from the summer school at U.N.C. on account of illness.

Mr. and Mrs. Wade Marsh spent the week-end at Vade Mecum Springs.

Miss Connie Sheppard of Winston spent the week-end with her cousin Miss Clara Hayworth on Howell street. Miss Sheppard is one of Winston-Salem’s popular young ladies.

Geo. Lowe, well known young man around town, has arrived from overseas. He was with Dr. J.W. Long’s hospital unit.

Miss Cletus Burgess will not teach school this year but instead has accepted a position with Secretary Massey of the Chamber of Commerce.

The editor is some blackberry picker. Tuesday evening he with two other members of the family gathered 7 pecks, regardless of briars, chigre (maybe means chiggers?) and poison oak, repenting later, but ready to go again. At the price of $3.50 a bushel, we made about $6 by the deal which beats the newspaper game for the length of time required. Monday afternoon we repeated the “dose” with about the same results.

Col. J.W. Sechrest leaves Monday for his usual two week’s vacation at White Sulphur Springs near Mount Airy.

Corporal Julius C. Mills is back again at his old post on The Review, to the delight of his friends here, after an absence of 12 months in France, accomplishing his part to make this world a fit place in which to live.

The firemen had a big time of it at Asheville last week. Asst. Chief H.U. Oakes arrived home Wednesday.

The rain prevented the High Point-Thomasville game yesterday afternoon.

Frank J. Sizemore accepts a position as general assistant to Manager C.F. Wilson Aug. 1st, severing his connection with the Carolina and Yadkin River Railroad where he was employed as traffic manager.

Drs. A.P. and D.F. Staley attended the meetings of the Optometric Society in Winston Wednesday and Thursday. Dr. A.P. Staley was president of the association the past year.

Mrs. Chas. Ragan is in Clarian, Va., on account of the serious illness of her brother, Thos. Dillard.

Items from Asheboro

Mr. Zell Brown went to High Point in his car last Saturday and brought home Mrs. Houston Luck of Grant township, who has been in High Point Hospital, taking treatment for paralysis two or three months. Mrs. Luck is considerably improved, though still unable to walk.

Mr. D.M. Hohn of High Point, Route 3, was in town last Saturday.

Mr. D.S. Coltrane, who underwent an operation for appendicitis at the High Point hospital last week, is reported to be getting along nicely. Mr. Coltrane will be out of his office during this month.
Mrs. W.D. Stedman and Miss Nannie Bulla spent last Monday in High Point.

Mr. and Mrs. J.D. Sluder and daughter, Miss Beulah, of Asheboro Star Route, were in High Point and Greensboro for the Fourth.

Mr. and Mrs. Lee R. Spencer and children, of High Point, were visitors in Asheboro last Saturday, guests of Mrs. S.E. Rush, on Salisbury street. Mr. and Mrs. Spencer are former Randolph people, who have been living in High Point for some time.

High Point Route 4 News

By Mary A. Clodfelter

Noah Mostinger died at his home one mile west of Wallburg Wednesday, July 9th. He had been in declining health for more than a year and for the past week suffered with diarrhea. He ate a hearty dinner and said he felt better but died soon afterwards not withstanding a doctor was summoned immediately. Heart failure is the cause given.

He leaves five children, J.B. and J.E. Motsinger of Wallburg, Mrs. Alfred Clinard, Mrs. John Clinard of Wallburg, Mrs. Pinkney Whicker of near Bethany and Miss Lula Motsinger of Walburg; two brothers, Charly and Will Motsinger of Wallburg; three sisters, and a hoste of grandchildren and friends to mourn their loss. His wife preceded him to the grave 20 months.

He was a prosperous farmer and a good neighbor, husband, father and he will be missed not only in his home but in his church and community. He was a Christian gentleman and his influence will live forever. He belonged to the Wallburg Baptist church. His age was 79 years, 6 months and some days. May the Lord comfort the bereaved.
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There will be a supper at Henry Reids on the Wallburg road next Saturday night.

Speculation on sugar makes it scarce when the fix the price and they want it. We will have plenty when the republicans get a chance to fix things. Wait and see. (We are waiting—Editor)

Wheat threshing is the order of the days. Wheat is sorry, good straw but not filled. Tobacco is not looking very much owing to the dry weather.

Federal Child Labor Law As It Stands Now, July 16, 1919

From the Hickory Daily Record, Wednesday, July 16, 1919. Note that children under the age of 14 were permitted to work on farms.

Child Labor Law Questions Studied

Raleigh, July 16—The state child welfare commission, composed ex-officio of Dr. E.C. Brooks, Dr. W.S. Rankin and Commissioner R.F. Beasley, held a session late for the purpose of considering questions relating to the child labor law which automatically went into effect July 1. The commission had its executive officer, Mr. E.F. Carter, on hand, and he has been engaged in making arrangements for the active work which devolves upon the commission. Section 5 of the act reads as follows:

No child under the age of 14 years shall be employed, or permitted to work, in or about or in connection with any mill, factory, cannery, workshop, manufacturing establishment, laundry, bakery, mercantile establishment, office, hotel, restaurant, barber shop, boot-black stand, public stable, garage, place of amusement, brick yard, lumber yard, or any messenger or delivery service, except in cases and under regulations prescribed by the commission hereinafter created.

It will be seen from the concluding sentence of the last paragraph that the commission is empowered to make exceptions and regulations of a modifying nature. The commission takes the position that the law went into effect July 1 in all its implications and will remain so unless reasonable cause is shown why the commission should make some modifications. In order to be fully advised on this matter, the commission sets August 5 and 6 for a public hearing to be held in the hall of representatives. Any parties who believe that any modifications should be made in the law in the discretion of the commission are invited to be present on that occasion, either in person or by representative, for the purpose of stating their position. Letters also will be accepted by the commission from any persons who are not able to be present, and will be given due consideration.
….

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Father Will Testify Against Reckless Drivers After Daughter Struck by One, July 16, 1919

From the Hickory Daily Record, Wednesday, July 16, 1919

Struck By Automobile

Mr. H.C. Newton, who lives on the corner of Twelfth street and Twelfth avenue requests the Record to state that he will prosecute reckless automobile drivers who pass by his home. On Monday afternoon one of his children, a little girl, was struck by a Ford. The injury was not serious, but it might have been fatal. Mr. Newton says he does not like to report people, but will be forced to appear against offenders.





'If Ever We Talk About Being Poor In North Carolina, We Ought To Be Ashamed of Ourselves' July 16, 1919

From the University of North Carolina News-Letter, Chapel Hill, N.C., July 16, 1919. The amount of money is bank savings accounts increased from $22 million in 1915 to $61 million in 1918.

Our Savings Deposits
….
We ended the war with $61 million dollars in our banks, in time certificates and savings deposits.

Our surplus cash in the banks of North Carolina today is more than we have been able or willing to invest in church and school properties—church and state, public and private—in 250 years of history!

It is just about equal to the total we have invested in motor cars during the last 10 years!

If ever again we talk about being poor in North Carolina, we ought to be ashamed of ourselves. We are rich enough to invest in anything we really care about—in church purposes, college endowments, school houses and school support, improve highways, whatnot. If anywhere we ever again balk at investing in these primary agencies of civilization, it will be because we are incurably tight-skinned and close-fisted.

The day of pint-cup thinking about the big-scale concerns of life and destiny is surely at an end in the Good Old North State.

Three counties have no banks—Camden, Currituck and Graham. And seven counties with banks have no savings deposits or time certificates in December 1918, or none reported—Clay, Dare, Jackson, Macon, Stokes, Swain and Tyrrell.

Million Dollar Counties

New Hanover and Forsyth lead the state with $110 and $106 per inhabitant, county men, women, and children of both races.

Forsyth is far in the lead in the grand total of bank-account savings, with $6,428,000 in round numbers,….has more money laid away in bank savings than the 670,000 inhabitants of the 43 counties at the fag end of the table in this issue.

Our Bank Account Savings Per Inhabitant in December 1918 (Corrected)
Department of Rural Economics, University of North Carolina

New Hanover, $110 per person, $3,866,363 total savings

Forsyth, $107 per person, $6,428,273 total savings

Durham, $69 per person, $3,111,224 total savings

Vance, $47 per person, $1,027,386 total savings

Granville, $43 per person, $1,140,873 total
Wilson, $43 per person, $1,396,316 total
Scotland, $43 per person, $772,636 total
Nash, $43 per person, $1,827,117 total

Pasquotank, $40 per person, $797,321 total savings

Guilford, $39 per person, $3,264,474 total

Alamance, $35 per person, $1,106,301 total savings

Mecklenburg, $34 per person, $2,643,191 total savings

Rockingham, $32 per person, $1,245,895 total savings

Craven, $31 per person, $836,418 total savings
Hertford, $31 per person, $503,074 total savings

Cleveland, $30 per person, $996,566 total savings
Surry, $30 per person, $1,006,344 total savings

Carteret, $29 per person, $456,044 total savings

McDowell, $27 per person, $390,243 total savings

Martin, $26 per person, $476,320 total savings

Catawba, $25 per person, $846,762 total savings
Duplin, $25 per person, $693,829 total savings

Lincoln, $24 per person, $450,874 total savings
Person, $24 per person, $428,912 total savings
Orange, $24 per person, $372,610 total savings

Chowan, $23 per person, $277,922 total savings

Gates, $22 per person, $229,113 total savings

Pitt, $22 per person, $924,961 total savings
Gaston, $22 per person, $1,006,659 total savings

Beaufort, $21 per person, $533,843 total savings
Iredell, $21 per person, $829,959 total savings
Cabarrus, $21 per person, $626,405 total savings

Franklin, $20 per person, $482,913 total savings
Bertie, $20 per person, $497,469 total savings
Wake, $20 per person, $1,413,695 total savings

Pamlico, $19 per person, $220,852 total savings
Davie, $19 per person, $271,633 total savings

Wayne, $18 per person, $734,395 total savings
Rowan, $18 per person, $804,859 total savings
Randolph, $18 per person, $548,806 total savings
Lenoir, $18 per person, $472,511 total savings
Halifax, $18 per person, $800,027 total savings

Washington, $17 per person, $198,868 total savings
Yancey, $17 per person, $212,163 total savings

Onslow, $16 per person, $256, 193 total savings
Buncombe, $16 per person, $868,487 total savings
Columbus, $16 per person, $566,417 total savings

Wilkes, $15 per person, $504,380 total savings
Sampson, $15 per person, $486,015 total savings
Polk, $15 per person, $124,787 total savings
Edgecombe, $15 per person, $548,498 total savings

Cherokee, $14 per person, $230,833 total savings
Warren, $14 per person, $288,771 total savings
Transylvania, $14 per person, $105,736 total savings

Northampton, $13 per person, $295,071 total savings
Alexander, $13 per person, $158,362 total savings
Jones, $13 per person, $115,578 total savings
Henderson, $13 per person, $244,983 total savings
Rutherford, $13 per person, $398,775 total savings

Harnett, $12 per person, $348,145 total savings

Pender, $10 per person, $173,627 total savings
Burke, $10 per person, $248,780 total savings

Stanley, $9 per person, $231,439 total savings
Johnston, $9 per person, $457,592 total savings
Montgomery, $9 per person, $140,953 total savings
Yadkin, $9 per person, $156,595 total savings
Bladen, $9 per person, $160,142 total savings

Ashe, $8 per person, $146,818 total savings
Perquimans, $8 per person, $99,390 total savings
Richmond, $8 per person, $181,883 total savings

Brunswick, $7 per person, $115,296 total savings

Greene, $6 per person, $85,245 total savings
Davidson, $6 per person, $227,549 total savings

Alleghany, $5 per person, $37, 885 total savings

Madison, $4 per person, $74,580 total savings
Anson, $4 per person, $114,296 total savings

Hyde, $2 per person, $18,688 total savings
Caswell, $2 per person, $34,182 total savings
Union, $2 per person, $76,643 total savings

Camden, $0 per person, $0 total savings
Currituck, $0 per person, $0 total savings
Graham, $0 per person, $0 total savings
Clay, $0 per person, $0 total savings
Dare, $0 per person, $0 total savings
Jackson, $0 per person, $0 total savings
Macon, $0 per person, $0 total savings
Stokes, $0 per person, $0 total savings
Swain, $0 per person, $0 total savings
Tyrrell, $0 per person, $0 total savings

Ten counties are omitted for lack of authoritative population figures: Avery, Caldwell, Chatham, Cumberland, Hoke, Lee, Mitchell, Moore, Robeson and Watauga.


Average Sheep Brings Profit of $27.60 Per Year; Average Dog Brings Loss of $36.50, July 16, 1919

From the University of North Carolina News-Letter, Chapel Hill, N.C., July 16, 1919

The Loss From Dogs

For every dog kept, a loss of $36.50 must be pocketed every year. For every sheep kept, a profit of $27.60 may be pocketed ever year.

At least that is the way the proposition was itemized on the blackboard of a mountain schoolhouse by a farm demonstration agent in Kentucky. And the figures were convincing. There was not a sheep in the district at the time the figures were placed on the blackboard. Somebody said there used to be one sheep—a wether—“down the mountain a ways,” but the dogs ate him.

A few weeks from the time the agent placed the figures on the board 15 boys each had contrived to buy a sheep. Eleven dogs had been killed. Several other families, pestered by their small sons, but still unwilling to kill their dogs, were trying to give the brutes away.

Similar movements were started at other schools. Now, in that district, there are 622 boys who are members of the sheep club. Among them they own nearly 2,665 sheep. By the tax returns, the dog population appears to have increased also, but the agent says this is not true. Formerly there was no sentiment for enforcement of the dog law, he says, but now there is a very strong sentiment that way, and, while there has been a considerable decrease in the number of dogs, there is an apparent increase, because people who formerly evaded the dog tax now have to pay it.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Colored People Thanked For Their Contributions to 4th of July Dinner at Oteen, July 15, 1919

From the front page of the Hickory Daily Record, July 15, 1919

Colored People Help

The Hickory canteen desired to acknowledge its appreciation of the help rendered by the colored people in donating chickens for the Fourth of July dinner at Oteen, for $7.50 in cash contributed, for aid in dressing chickens and for eight chickens donated through Rev. Roberts. The cantaloupes sent to Oteen last week were shared by white and colored alike, as were also the colors. Eula Ramseur, Mamie Houck and Ida Smith did fine work in helping to prepare the chickens at the canteen for the soldiers.

Hudson-Belk Company Wants to Use Children Younger Than 14 to Wrap Packages, July 15, 1919

From The Commonwealth, Scotland Neck, N.C., July 15, 1919

Relief Sought in Child Labor

Raleigh, N.C., July 15—Hudson-Belk Company, of this city, has hoped the question with the State Child Welfare Commission relative to the employment of children under the age of 14 at wrapping clerk during vacation time, which has caused the commission to instruct its executive secretary, Mr. E.F. Carter, to relieve employers from liability under the new law, which goes into effect today where good reasons are given for the employment of children under the age of 14.

Federal Government Trying to Discourage MInes, Factories, From Hiring Children, 1919

From the Records of the U.S. Senate, National Archives and Records Administration, online at https://www.visitthecapitol.gov/exhibitions/artifact/hr-12863-revenue-act-1919-child-labor-tax-law-1919

H.R. 12863, Revenue Act of 1919 (Child Labor Tax Law), 1919

Unable to protect child workers under the Constitution’s Commerce Clause, Congress tried another approach. The Revenue Act of 1919, also known as the Child Labor Tax Law, regulated child labor indirectly. Among its many provisions, the law imposed a ten-percent tax on net profits of companies that employed children in certain industries, such as mining and manufacturing.
Records of the U.S. Senate, National Archives and Records Administration